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Article

Levetiracetam Reduced the Basal Excitability of the Dentate Gyrus without Restoring Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Rats with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy

1
Laboratorio de Neurociencias, Subdirección de Medicina Experimental, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Ciudad de Mexico 04530, Mexico
2
Departamento de Fisiología, Instituto Politécnico Nacional, Escuela Nacional de Ciencias Biológicas, Ciudad de Mexico 04530, Mexico
3
Area of Neurosciences, Department Biology of Reproduction Unidad Iztapalapa, Universidad Autónoma Metropolitana, Ciudad de Mexico 09340, Mexico
4
Brain Institute, Federal University of Rio Grande do Norte, Natal 59056-450, Brazil
5
Servicio de Electromedicina, Instituto Nacional de Pediatría, Ciudad de Mexico 04530, Mexico
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(9), 634; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090634
Received: 5 August 2020 / Revised: 9 September 2020 / Accepted: 10 September 2020 / Published: 11 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience)
Temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE), the most common type of focal epilepsy, affects learning and memory; these effects are thought to emerge from changes in synaptic plasticity. Levetiracetam (LEV) is a widely used antiepileptic drug that is also associated with the reversal of cognitive dysfunction. The long-lasting effect of LEV treatment and its participation in synaptic plasticity have not been explored in early chronic epilepsy. Therefore, through the measurement of evoked field potentials, this study aimed to comprehensively identify the alterations in the excitability and the short-term (depression/facilitation) and long-term synaptic plasticity (long-term potentiation, LTP) of the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus in a lithium–pilocarpine rat model of TLE, as well as their possible restoration by LEV (1 week; 300 mg/kg/day). TLE increased the population spike (PS) amplitude (input/output curve); interestingly, LEV treatment partially reduced this hyperexcitability. Furthermore, TLE augmented synaptic depression, suppressed paired-pulse facilitation, and reduced PS-LTP; however, LEV did not alleviate such alterations. Conversely, the excitatory postsynaptic potential (EPSP)-LTP of TLE rats was comparable to that of control rats and was decreased by LEV. LEV caused a long-lasting attenuation of basal hyperexcitability but did not restore impaired synaptic plasticity in the early chronic phase of TLE. View Full-Text
Keywords: inhibitory transmission; synaptic plasticity; temporal lobe epilepsy; evoked field potentials; levetiracetam inhibitory transmission; synaptic plasticity; temporal lobe epilepsy; evoked field potentials; levetiracetam
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Graphical abstract

MDPI and ACS Style

González-H, G.; Contreras-García, I.J.; Sánchez-Huerta, K.; Queiroz, C.M.T.; Gallardo Gudiño, L.R.; Mendoza-Torreblanca, J.G.; Zamudio, S.R. Levetiracetam Reduced the Basal Excitability of the Dentate Gyrus without Restoring Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Rats with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090634

AMA Style

González-H G, Contreras-García IJ, Sánchez-Huerta K, Queiroz CMT, Gallardo Gudiño LR, Mendoza-Torreblanca JG, Zamudio SR. Levetiracetam Reduced the Basal Excitability of the Dentate Gyrus without Restoring Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Rats with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(9):634. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090634

Chicago/Turabian Style

González-H, Guillermo, Itzel Jatziri Contreras-García, Karla Sánchez-Huerta, Claudio M. T. Queiroz, Luis Ricardo Gallardo Gudiño, Julieta G. Mendoza-Torreblanca, and Sergio R. Zamudio. 2020. "Levetiracetam Reduced the Basal Excitability of the Dentate Gyrus without Restoring Impaired Synaptic Plasticity in Rats with Temporal Lobe Epilepsy" Brain Sciences 10, no. 9: 634. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10090634

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