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Article

Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activity during a Brain Training Game Predicts Cognitive Improvements after Four Weeks’ Brain Training Game Intervention: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial †

1
Department of Cognitive Health Science, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer (IDAC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
2
Smart Aging Research Center (S.A.R.C.), Tohoku University, Seiryo-machi 4-1, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
3
Department of Functional Brain Imaging, Institute of Development, Aging and Cancer (IDAC), Tohoku University, Sendai 980-8575, Japan
4
University Medical Center Göttingen (UMG), Georg-August-University of Göttingen, Robert-Koch-Straße 40, 37075 Göttingen, Germany
5
Safety Psychology, Human Science Division, Railway Technical Research Institute, Kokubunji 185-8540, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Trial Registration: This trial was registered at The University Hospital Medical Information Network Clinical Trials Registry (UMIN). Registered 12 December 2017, https://upload.umin.ac.jp/cgi-bin/ctr/ctr_view_reg.cgi?recptno=R.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(8), 560; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080560
Received: 7 July 2020 / Revised: 8 August 2020 / Accepted: 12 August 2020 / Published: 15 August 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Mechanisms of Cognitive Plasticity)
Background: Recent studies have demonstrated that brain activities using NIRS (near-infrared spectroscopy) at baseline during cognitive tasks (e.g., N-back task) can predict the cognitive benefits of a cognitive training. In this study, we investigated whether brain activities during brain training game (BT) at baseline would predict benefits to cognitive functions after the intervention period. Methods: In a four-week double-blinded randomized control trial (RCT) 72 young adults were randomly assigned to one of the two groups: participants in the BT group played specific game, called the Brain Age. Participants in an active control group (ACT) played the puzzle game Tetris. We measured brain activity during the training games using two channel NIRS before the intervention period. Cognitive functions were tested before and after the four-week intervention period. Results: The BT showed significant improvements in inhibition, processing speed, and working memory performance compared to ACT. The left and right DLPFC (dorsolateral prefrontal cortex) brain activities during the BT at baseline were associated with improvements in inhibition and processing speed. Discussion: This randomized control trial first provides scientific evidence that DLPFC activities during BT at baseline can predict cognitive improvements after a four-week intervention period. View Full-Text
Keywords: brain training; prediction; NIRS; cognitive improvement; randomized control trial; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex brain training; prediction; NIRS; cognitive improvement; randomized control trial; dorsolateral prefrontal cortex
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MDPI and ACS Style

Nouchi, R.; Kawata, N.Y.d.S.; Saito, T.; Himmelmeier, R.M.; Nakamura, R.; Nouchi, H.; Kawashima, R. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activity during a Brain Training Game Predicts Cognitive Improvements after Four Weeks’ Brain Training Game Intervention: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 560. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080560

AMA Style

Nouchi R, Kawata NYdS, Saito T, Himmelmeier RM, Nakamura R, Nouchi H, Kawashima R. Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activity during a Brain Training Game Predicts Cognitive Improvements after Four Weeks’ Brain Training Game Intervention: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(8):560. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080560

Chicago/Turabian Style

Nouchi, Rui, Natasha Y.d.S. Kawata, Toshiki Saito, Robin M. Himmelmeier, Ryo Nakamura, Haruka Nouchi, and Ryuta Kawashima. 2020. "Dorsolateral Prefrontal Cortex Activity during a Brain Training Game Predicts Cognitive Improvements after Four Weeks’ Brain Training Game Intervention: Evidence from a Randomized Controlled Trial" Brain Sciences 10, no. 8: 560. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10080560

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