Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an autoimmune life-threatening disease, afflicting millions of people worldwide. Although the disease is non-curable, considerable therapeutic advances have been achieved through molecular immunotherapeutic approaches, such as peptides vaccination, administration of monoclonal antibodies, and immunogenic copolymers. The main aims of these therapeutic strategies are to shift the MS-related autoimmune response towards a non-inflammatory T helper 2 (Th2) cells response, inactivate or ameliorate cytotoxic autoreactive T cells, induce secretion of anti-inflammatory cytokines, and inhibit recruitment of autoreactive lymphocytes to the central nervous system (CNS). These approaches can efficiently treat autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), an essential system to study MS in animals, but they can only partially inhibit disease progress in humans. Nevertheless, modern immunotherapeutic techniques remain the most promising tools for the development of safe MS treatments, specifically targeting the cellular factors that trigger the initiation of the disease.
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