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Open AccessArticle

Event-Related Potentials (ERP) Indices of Motivation during the Effort Expenditure for Reward Task

Department of Clinical Psychiatry, University Hospital of Besançon, 25000 Besançon, France
EA 481, Laboratory of Neurosciences, University of Burgundy Franche-Comté, 25000 Besançon, France
Clinical Investigation Centre, University Hospital of Besançon, Inserm CIC 1431, 25000 Besançon, France
Neuroimaging and neurostimulation department Neuraxess, University of Burgundy Franche-Comté, 25000 Besançon, France
FondaMental Foundation, 94000 Créteil, France
Department of Psychiatry and Addictology, University Hospital of Dijon, 21079 Dijon, France
EA 4452, LPPM, University of Burgundy Franche-Comté, 21000 Dijon, France
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(5), 283;
Received: 17 March 2020 / Revised: 5 May 2020 / Accepted: 6 May 2020 / Published: 8 May 2020
(This article belongs to the Section Neuroimaging)
Dynamic and temporal facets of the various constructs that comprise motivation remain to be explored. Here, we adapted the Effort Expenditure for Reward Task, a well-known laboratory task used to evaluate motivation, to study the event-related potentials associated with reward processing. The Stimulus Preceding Negativity (SPN) and the P300 were utilized as motivation indicators with high density electroencephalography. The SPN was found to be more negative for difficult choices compared to easy choices, suggesting a greater level of motivation, at a neurophysiological level. The insula, a structure previously associated with both effort discounting and prediction error, was concomitantly activated during the generation of the SPN. Processing a gain significantly altered the amplitude of the P300 compared to an absence of gain, particularly on centroparietal electrodes. One of the generators of the P300 was located on the vmPFC, a cerebral structure involved in the choice between two positive results and their predictions, during loss processing. Both the SPN and the P300 appear to be reliable neural markers of motivation. We postulate that the SPN represents the strength of the motivational level, while the P300 represents the impact of motivation on updating memories of the feedback. View Full-Text
Keywords: motivation; effort; EEfRT; P300; SPN motivation; effort; EEfRT; P300; SPN
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Giustiniani, J.; Nicolier, M.; Teti Mayer, J.; Chabin, T.; Masse, C.; Galmès, N.; Pazart, L.; Trojak, B.; Bennabi, D.; Vandel, P.; Haffen, E.; Gabriel, D. Event-Related Potentials (ERP) Indices of Motivation during the Effort Expenditure for Reward Task. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 283.

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