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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle

Trajectories of Immediate and Delayed Verbal Memory in the Spanish General Population of Middle-aged and Older Adults

Research, Innovation and Teaching Unit, Parc Sanitari Sant Joan de Déu, Sant Boi de Llobregat, 08830 Barcelona, Spain
Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Salud Mental (CIBERSAM), Instituto de Salud Carlos III, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Department of Medicine, Universitat de Barcelona, 08036 Barcelona, Spain
Serra Húnter fellow, Department of Statistics and Operations Research, Polytechnic University of Catalonia-BarcelonaTech, 08028 Barcelona, Spain
Department of Psychiatry, Hospital Universitario de La Princesa, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria Princesa (IIS-Princesa), 28006 Madrid, Spain
Department of Psychiatry, Universidad Autónoma de Madrid, 28029 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(4), 249;
Received: 19 March 2020 / Revised: 19 April 2020 / Accepted: 20 April 2020 / Published: 22 April 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epidemiology of Alzheimer’s Disease and Other Dementias)
(1) Cognitive decline differs among individuals and cognition function domains. We sought to identify distinct groups of immediate and delayed verbal memory in two age subsamples (50–64, 65+ years), and to analyze associated factors. (2) Latent class mixed models were used to identify verbal memory trajectories in a sample of Spanish community-dwelling individuals over 8 years’ follow up. Chi-square and Kruskal–Wallis tests were used to assess differences among trajectories. (3) Different trajectories were identified. In the case of immediate verbal memory, these were: very low/decline (6.3%), low/stable (38.2%), medium/slow decline (43.4%), and high/slow decline (12.2%) in the middle-aged group, and low/decline (20.4%), medium/slow decline (60.4%), and high/slow decline (19.2%) in the older subsample. In delayed verbal memory, more distinct patterns were found: very low/decline (12.4%), low/stable (51.4%), medium/accelerated decline (24.7%), and high/slow increase (11.4%) in the younger group, and low/slow decline (34.4%), medium/decline (52.7%), and high/slow decline (12.9%) in the older group. (4) Overall, low initial performance and decline were associated with older age, lower education, and higher diabetes/stroke prevalence. Differences found suggests heterogeneity in cognitive ageing. The high prevalence of cardiovascular diseases in those with worse cognition suggests that early interventions to prevent those conditions should be targeted in midlife to delay cognitive decline. View Full-Text
Keywords: cognition; cognitive functions; cognitive aging; memory; epidemiology cognition; cognitive functions; cognitive aging; memory; epidemiology
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Bayes-Marin, I.; Fernández, D.; Lara, E.; Martín-María, N.; Miret, M.; Moreno-Agostino, D.; Ayuso-Mateos, J.L.; Sanchez-Niubo, A.; Haro, J.M.; Olaya, B. Trajectories of Immediate and Delayed Verbal Memory in the Spanish General Population of Middle-aged and Older Adults. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 249.

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