Acute restraint stress (ARS) is an unavoidable stress situation and may be encountered in different clinical situations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of ARS on the hippocampus and cerebellum, assess the impact of these effects on the behavior and cognitive function, and determine whether pretreatment with ceftriaxone would attenuate the damages produced by ARS on the hippocampus and cerebellum. Four groups of male mice were included in this study: The control group, ARS group, ceftriaxone group, and ARS + ceftriaxone group. Tail suspension test, Y-maze task, and open field tests were used to assess depression, working spatial memory, and anxiety. The biochemical analyses included measurements of serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor (TNF), interleukin-6, hippocampal expression of bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), heat shock protein 90, cerebellar expression of S100 protein, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and carbon anhydrase. Histopathological examination of the brain sections was conducted on the hippocampus and cerebellum by hematoxylin and eosin stains in addition to ultrastructure evaluation using electron microscopy. Our results suggested that ceftriaxone had neuroprotective properties by attenuating the effects of ARS on the hippocampus and cerebellum in mice. This effect was demonstrated by the improvement in the cognitive and behavioral tests as well as by the preservation of the hippocampal and cerebellar architecture.
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