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Open AccessArticle

Hippocampal and Cerebellar Changes in Acute Restraint Stress and the Impact of Pretreatment with Ceftriaxone

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Department of Basic Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, Hashemite University, Zarqa 13133, Jordan
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Department of Medical Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11451, Egypt
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Department of Medical Education, School of Medicine, California University of Science & Medicine, San Bernardino, CA 82408, USA
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Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11451, Egypt
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Department of Basic Sciences, Riyadh Elm University, Riyadh 12734, Saudi Arabia
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Department of Medical Pharmacology, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University Cairo 11451, Egypt
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Department of Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine, Cairo University, Cairo 11451, Egypt
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Department of Anatomy and Embryology, Faculty of Medicine, Beni-Suef University, Beni Suef 62511, Egypt
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(4), 193; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10040193
Received: 6 March 2020 / Revised: 15 March 2020 / Accepted: 22 March 2020 / Published: 25 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Collection Collection on Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience)
Acute restraint stress (ARS) is an unavoidable stress situation and may be encountered in different clinical situations. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of ARS on the hippocampus and cerebellum, assess the impact of these effects on the behavior and cognitive function, and determine whether pretreatment with ceftriaxone would attenuate the damages produced by ARS on the hippocampus and cerebellum. Four groups of male mice were included in this study: The control group, ARS group, ceftriaxone group, and ARS + ceftriaxone group. Tail suspension test, Y-maze task, and open field tests were used to assess depression, working spatial memory, and anxiety. The biochemical analyses included measurements of serum cortisol, tumor necrotic factor (TNF), interleukin-6, hippocampal expression of bone morphogenetic protein 9 (BMP9), lysosomal-associated membrane protein 1 (LAMP1), glutamate transporter 1 (GLT1), heat shock protein 90, cerebellar expression of S100 protein, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), and carbon anhydrase. Histopathological examination of the brain sections was conducted on the hippocampus and cerebellum by hematoxylin and eosin stains in addition to ultrastructure evaluation using electron microscopy. Our results suggested that ceftriaxone had neuroprotective properties by attenuating the effects of ARS on the hippocampus and cerebellum in mice. This effect was demonstrated by the improvement in the cognitive and behavioral tests as well as by the preservation of the hippocampal and cerebellar architecture. View Full-Text
Keywords: acute restraint stress; hippocampus; cerebellum; tissue markers; histopathological examination acute restraint stress; hippocampus; cerebellum; tissue markers; histopathological examination
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amin, S.N.; Hassan, S.S.; Khashaba, A.S.; Youakim, M.F.; Latif, N.S.A.; Rashed, L.A.; Yassa, H.D. Hippocampal and Cerebellar Changes in Acute Restraint Stress and the Impact of Pretreatment with Ceftriaxone. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 193.

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