Next Article in Journal
A Simple Pattern of Movement Is Not Able to Inhibit Experimental Pain in FM Patients and Controls: An sLORETA Study
Next Article in Special Issue
Chemosensory Event-Related Potentials and Power Spectrum could be A Possible Biomarker in 3M Syndrome Infants?
Previous Article in Journal
The Reaction Switching Produces A Greater Bias to Prepotent Response than Reaction Inhibition
Previous Article in Special Issue
Functional Connectivity between the Resting-State Olfactory Network and the Hippocampus in Alzheimer’s Disease
Open AccessArticle

Olfactory Memory in Depression: State and Trait Differences between Bipolar and Unipolar Disorders

1
UMR 1253, iBrain, Université de Tours, Inserm, 37044 Tours, France
2
Psychiatric Hospital of the Cross, Jal Eddib 60096, Lebanon
3
Department of Psychiatry, Faculty of Medicine, Saint-Joseph University, Beirut 166830, Lebanon
4
CHRU de Tours, Clinique Psychiatrique Universitaire, 37044 Tours, France
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Denotes equal contribution.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(3), 189; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10030189
Received: 2 March 2020 / Revised: 22 March 2020 / Accepted: 23 March 2020 / Published: 24 March 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Olfaction as a Marker for Psychiatric and Neurological Diseases)
Background: Changes in olfactory recognition memory may constitute sensory markers in depression. Significant differences may exist between unipolar and bipolar depression. Our study compares olfactory memory between control, unipolar, and bipolar patients in depressed and euthymic states in order to identify potential markers of depression. Methods: 176 participants were recruited in 5 groups: depressed bipolar (DB), euthymic bipolar (EB), depressed unipolar (DU), euthymic unipolar (EU), and controls (HC). The participants had a standardized clinical and olfactory assessment (olfactory memory, evaluation of pleasantness, intensity, familiarity, and emotional aspect of smells). Results: DU, DB, and EU patients had a deficit in olfactory memory compared to HC. DB patients had lower capacity to recognize new odors. DB and DU patients had more limited detection of unfamiliar odors than HC. DB patients rated odors as less pleasant compared to the other groups. All groups had lower hedonic ratings than HC. DB patients had lower emotional ratings than EU patients. Conclusions: Olfactory memory is impaired in depressive states, thus constituting a state marker of depression. Impairments in olfactory memory persist after remission of bipolar depression, thus constituting a possible trait marker of bipolarity. Hedonic rating differentiates unipolar from bipolar depression. This is the first study that identifies a sensory marker differentiating between unipolar and bipolar depression. View Full-Text
Keywords: unipolar; bipolar; depression; olfaction; marker; recognition memory unipolar; bipolar; depression; olfaction; marker; recognition memory
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Kazour, F.; Richa, S.; Abi Char, C.; Atanasova, B.; El-Hage, W. Olfactory Memory in Depression: State and Trait Differences between Bipolar and Unipolar Disorders. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 189.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

1
Back to TopTop