Next Article in Journal
CDKL5 Deficiency Disorder—A Complex Epileptic Encephalopathy
Next Article in Special Issue
Effects of Oral Contraceptive Androgenicity on Visuospatial and Social-Emotional Cognition: A Prospective Observational Trial
Previous Article in Journal
Focus on Clozapine Withdrawal- and Misuse-Related Cases as Reported to the European Medicines Agency (EMA) Pharmacovigilance Database
Previous Article in Special Issue
Autonomic Stress Response and Perceived Effort Jointly Inform on Dual Tasking in Aging
Open AccessArticle

The Impact of Removal of Ovarian Hormones on Cholinergic Muscarinic Receptors: Examining Prepulse Inhibition and Receptor Binding

Florey Institute of Neuroscience and Mental Health, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
IMPACT, The Institute for Mental and Physical Health and Clinical Translation, School of Medicine, Deakin University and Barwon Health, Geelong, VIC 3220, Australia
Affinity BIO, Scoresby, VIC 3179, Australia
Department of Psychiatry, Monash University, Melbourne, VIC 3004, Australia
Department of Nursing, University of Melbourne, Parkville, VIC 3010, Australia
Centre for Mental Health, Swinburne University, Hawthorn, VIC 3122, Australia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(2), 106;
Received: 22 January 2020 / Revised: 10 February 2020 / Accepted: 13 February 2020 / Published: 17 February 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hormones and Cognition)
Ovarian hormones, such as estrogens and progesterone, are known to exert beneficial effects on cognition and some psychiatric disorders. The basis of these effects is not fully understood, but may involve altered cholinergic neurotransmission. This study aimed to investigate how a lack of ovarian hormones would impact muscarinic receptor-induced deficits in prepulse inhibition (PPI) and muscarinic receptor density in several brain regions. Adult female rats were either ovariectomized, to remove the source of ovarian hormones, or left intact (sham-operated). PPI is a measure of sensorimotor gating that is typically impaired in schizophrenia patients, and similar deficits can be induced in rats by administering scopolamine, a muscarinic receptor antagonist. Our results revealed no significant effects of ovariectomy on PPI after saline or scopolamine treatment. Autoradiography was performed to measure cholinergic muscarinic receptor binding density using [3H]-pirenzepine, [3H]-AF-DX, and [3H]-4-DAMP, to label M1, M2/M4, and M3 receptors, respectively. We examined the amygdala, caudate putamen, dorsal hippocampus, motor cortex, retrosplenial cortex, and ventromedial hypothalamus. There were no significant group differences in any region for any muscarinic receptor type. These results suggest that removing peripheral ovarian hormones does not influence the cholinergic muscarinic receptor system in the context of PPI or receptor binding density. View Full-Text
Keywords: ovariectomy; female; rat; schizophrenia; PPI; CHRM1 ovariectomy; female; rat; schizophrenia; PPI; CHRM1
Show Figures

Figure 1

MDPI and ACS Style

Ch’ng, S.S.; Walker, A.J.; McCarthy, M.; Le, T.-K.; Thomas, N.; Gibbons, A.; Udawela, M.; Kusljic, S.; Dean, B.; Gogos, A. The Impact of Removal of Ovarian Hormones on Cholinergic Muscarinic Receptors: Examining Prepulse Inhibition and Receptor Binding. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 106.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats
Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Article Access Map by Country/Region

Back to TopTop