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Open AccessArticle

Prediction of Human Inhibition Brain Function with Inter-Subject and Intra-Subject Variability

by 1,2 and 1,2,3,4,*
1
Department of Biological Science and Technology, College of Biological Science and Technology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
2
Center for Intelligent Drug Systems and Smart Bio-Devices (IDS2B), National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
3
Institute of Bioinformatics and Systems Biology, National Chiao Tung University, Hsinchu 300, Taiwan
4
Drug Development and Value Creation Research Center, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung 807, Taiwan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(10), 726; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100726
Received: 20 July 2020 / Revised: 15 September 2020 / Accepted: 28 September 2020 / Published: 13 October 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Human Brain Dynamics: Latest Advances and Prospects)
The stop signal task has been used to quantify the human inhibitory control. The inter-subject and intra-subject variability was investigated under the inhibition of human response with a realistic environmental scenario. In present study, we used a battleground scenario where a sniper-scope picture was the background, a target picture was a go signal, and a nontarget picture was a stop signal. The task instructions were to respond on the target image and inhibit the response if a nontarget image appeared. This scenario produced a threatening situation and endorsed the evaluation of how subject’s response inhibition manifests in a real situation. In this study, 32 channels of electroencephalography (EEG) signals were collected from 20 participants during successful stop (response inhibition) and failed stop (response) trials. These EEG signals were used to predict two possible outcomes: successful stop or failed stop. The inter-subject variability (between-subjects) and intra-subject variability (within-subjects) affect the performance of participants in the classification system. The EEG signals of successful stop versus failed stop trials were classified using quadratic discriminant analysis (QDA) and linear discriminant analysis (LDA) (i.e., parametric) and K-nearest neighbor classifier (KNNC) and Parzen density-based (PARZEN) (i.e., nonparametric) under inter- and intra-subject variability. The EEG activities were found to increase during response inhibition in the frontal cortex (F3 and F4), presupplementary motor area (C3 and C4), parietal lobe (P3 and P4), and occipital (O1 and O2) lobe. Therefore, power spectral density (PSD) of EEG signals (1-50Hz) in F3, F4, C3, C4, P3, P4, O1, and O2 electrodes were measured in successful stop and failed stop trials. The PSD of the EEG signals was used as the feature input for the classifiers. Our proposed method shows an intra-subject classification accuracy of 97.61% for subject 15 with QDA classifier in C3 (left motor cortex) and an overall inter-subject classification accuracy of 71.66% ± 9.81% with the KNNC classifier in F3 (left frontal lobe). These results display how inter-subject and intra-subject variability affects the performance of the classification system. These findings can be used effectively to improve the psychopathology of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD), schizophrenia, and suicidality. View Full-Text
Keywords: response inhibition; electroencephalography; machine learning; classification; prediction; frontal cortex; inter-subject variability; intra-subject variability response inhibition; electroencephalography; machine learning; classification; prediction; frontal cortex; inter-subject variability; intra-subject variability
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Chikara, R.K.; Ko, L.-W. Prediction of Human Inhibition Brain Function with Inter-Subject and Intra-Subject Variability. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 726.

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