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Article

Cognitive Training Deep Dive: The Impact of Child, Training Behavior and Environmental Factors within a Controlled Trial of Cogmed for Fragile X Syndrome

1
MIND Institute, University of California Davis Medical Center, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
2
Department of Psychiatry and Behavioral Sciences, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
3
Division of Biostatistics, Department of Public Health Sciences, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Davis, CA 95616, USA
4
Department of Pediatrics, University of California Davis School of Medicine, Sacramento, CA 95817, USA
5
Carolina Institute for Developmental Disabilities, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599, USA
6
Department of Psychiatry, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27514, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Brain Sci. 2020, 10(10), 671; https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100671
Received: 4 September 2020 / Revised: 20 September 2020 / Accepted: 23 September 2020 / Published: 25 September 2020
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Update on the Treatment of Fragile X Syndrome)
Children with fragile X syndrome (FXS) exhibit deficits in a variety of cognitive processes within the executive function domain. As working memory (WM) is known to support a wide range of cognitive, learning and adaptive functions, WM computer-based training programs have the potential to benefit people with FXS and other forms of intellectual and developmental disability (IDD). However, research on the effectiveness of WM training has been mixed. The current study is a follow-up “deep dive” into the data collected during a randomized controlled trial of Cogmed (Stockholm, Sweden) WM training in children with FXS. Analyses characterized the training data, identified training quality metrics, and identified subgroups of participants with similar training patterns. Child, parent, home environment and training quality metrics were explored in relation to the clinical outcomes during the WM training intervention. Baseline cognitive level and training behavior metrics were linked to gains in WM performance-based assessments and also to reductions in inattention and other behaviors related to executive functioning during the intervention. The results also support a recommendation that future cognitive intervention trials with individuals with IDD such as FXS include additional screening of participants to determine not only baseline feasibility, but also capacity for training progress over a short period prior to inclusion and randomization. This practice may also better identify individuals with IDD who are more likely to benefit from cognitive training in clinical and educational settings. View Full-Text
Keywords: FMRP; FMR1 gene; intellectual disability; treatment; working memory; fragile X syndrome; cognitive training FMRP; FMR1 gene; intellectual disability; treatment; working memory; fragile X syndrome; cognitive training
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MDPI and ACS Style

Scott, H.; Harvey, D.J.; Li, Y.; McLennan, Y.A.; Johnston, C.K.; Shickman, R.; Piven, J.; Schweitzer, J.B.; Hessl, D. Cognitive Training Deep Dive: The Impact of Child, Training Behavior and Environmental Factors within a Controlled Trial of Cogmed for Fragile X Syndrome. Brain Sci. 2020, 10, 671. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100671

AMA Style

Scott H, Harvey DJ, Li Y, McLennan YA, Johnston CK, Shickman R, Piven J, Schweitzer JB, Hessl D. Cognitive Training Deep Dive: The Impact of Child, Training Behavior and Environmental Factors within a Controlled Trial of Cogmed for Fragile X Syndrome. Brain Sciences. 2020; 10(10):671. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100671

Chicago/Turabian Style

Scott, Haleigh, Danielle J. Harvey, Yueju Li, Yingratana A. McLennan, Cindy K. Johnston, Ryan Shickman, Joseph Piven, Julie B. Schweitzer, and David Hessl. 2020. "Cognitive Training Deep Dive: The Impact of Child, Training Behavior and Environmental Factors within a Controlled Trial of Cogmed for Fragile X Syndrome" Brain Sciences 10, no. 10: 671. https://doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10100671

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