The increase in the number of space debris is a serious threat to the safe operation of in-orbit spacecraft. The propagation law of the impact signal in the stiffened panel of the spacecraft’s sealed bulkhead is very complicated, and there is less research on the impact source location in the high-stiffened panel. In this paper, an adaptive energy compensation threshold filtering (AECTF) method based on acoustic emission is proposed, which can realize large-scale, fast and accurate locating of the impact source on the stiffened panel with less resource consumption. The influence law of the stiffeners on the lamb wave is analyzed by finite element simulation, and the Lamb wave energy factor curve is obtained. The correctness of the simulation is verified by the locating experiment on the impact point. The results show that the proposed AECTF method has better adaptability and can correctly locate the impact points in complicated locations. By selecting the appropriate frequency band to filter the signal, the locating accuracy and stability can be improved. When the frequency band is 100–200 kHz, the locating result is optimal, the average absolute error is 7.0 mm, the average relative error is 0.86%, and the error standard deviation is 3.5 mm. This study will generate fresh insight into the impact location technology of high-stiffened panel and provide a reference for the in-orbit spacecraft health monitoring system.
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