Next Article in Journal
An Extended Proxy-Based Sliding Mode Control of Pneumatic Muscle Actuators
Next Article in Special Issue
Nitrogen Oxide Removal by Coal-Based Activated Carbon for a Marine Diesel Engine
Previous Article in Journal
Interference-Induced Phenomena in High-Order Harmonic Generation from Bulk Solids
Previous Article in Special Issue
Estimation of Source-Based Aerosol Optical Properties for Polydisperse Aerosols from Receptor Models
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(8), 1573;

Characterization of Emission Factors Concerning Gasoline, LPG, and Diesel Vehicles via Transient Chassis-Dynamometer Tests

Department of Environmental Science, Hankuk University of Foreign Studies, 81, Oedae-ro, Mohyun-eup, Yongin 17035, Korea
Transportation Pollution Research Center, National Institute of Environmental Research, 42, Hwangyong-ro, Seogu, Incheon 22689, Korea
Department of Advanced Technology Fusion, Konkuk University, 120, Neungdone-ro, Gwangjin-gu, Seoul 05029, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 February 2019 / Revised: 11 April 2019 / Accepted: 12 April 2019 / Published: 16 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution)
PDF [2121 KB, uploaded 16 April 2019]


Gaseous emissions from vehicles contribute substantially to air pollution and climate change. Vehicular emissions also contain secondary pollutants produced via chemical reactions that occur between the emitted gases and atmospheric air. This study aims at understanding patterns concerning emission of regulated, greenhouse, and precursor gases, which demonstrate potential for secondary aerosol (SA) formation, from vehicles incorporating different engine technologies—multi-point injection (MPI) and gasoline direct injection (GDI)—and using different fuels—gasoline, liquefied petroleum gas (LPG), and diesel. Drive cycles from the National Institute of Environmental Research (NIER) were used in this study. Results obtained from drive cycle tests demonstrate a decline in aggregate gas emissions corresponding to an increase in average vehicle speed. CO2 accounts for more than 99% of aggregate gaseous emissions. In terms of concentration, CO and NH3 form predominantly non-CO2 emissions from gasoline and LPG vehicles, whereas nitrogen oxides (NOx) and non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHC) dominate diesel-vehicle emissions. A higher percentage of SO2 is emitted from diesel vehicles compared to their gasoline- and LPG-powered counterparts. EURO-5- and EURO-6-compliant vehicles equipped with diesel particulate filters (DPFs) tend to emit higher amounts of NO2 compared to EURO-3-compliant vehicles, which are not equipped with DPFs. Vehicles incorporating GDI tend to emit less CO2 compared to those incorporating MPI, albeit at the expense of increased CO emissions. The authors believe that results reported in this paper concerning regulated and unregulated pollutant-emission monitoring can contribute towards an accurate evaluation of both primary and secondary air-pollution scenarios in Korea. View Full-Text
Keywords: precursor gases; greenhouse gases; LPG; diesel; diesel particulate filters (DPFs) precursor gases; greenhouse gases; LPG; diesel; diesel particulate filters (DPFs)

Graphical abstract

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Park, G.; Mun, S.; Hong, H.; Chung, T.; Jung, S.; Kim, S.; Seo, S.; Kim, J.; Lee, J.; Kim, K.; Park, T.; Kang, S.; Ban, J.; Yu, D.-G.; Woo, J.-H.; Lee, T. Characterization of Emission Factors Concerning Gasoline, LPG, and Diesel Vehicles via Transient Chassis-Dynamometer Tests. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1573.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top