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A Radiological Approach to Evaluate Bone Graft Integration in Reconstructive Surgeries

Industrie Biomediche Insubri SA, Via Cantonale 67, 6805 Mezzovico-Vira, Switzerland
Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedic Clinic-IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino, 16132 Genova, Italy
Center for Research and Medical Studies, A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza, 10129 Torino, Italy
Radiologia Diagnostica Presidio CTO, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
Department of Traumatology and Rehabilitation, C.T.O. Hospital-A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza, 10129 Torino, Italy
Biomaterials Laboratory, Institute for Mechanical Engineering and Materials Technology, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, Via Cantonale 2C, 6928 Manno, Switzerland
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1469;
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering)
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(1) Background: Bone tissue engineering is a promising tool to develop new smart solutions for regeneration of complex bone districts, from orthopedic to oral and maxillo-facial fields. In this respect, a crucial characteristic for biomaterials is the ability to fully integrate within the patient body. In this work, we developed a novel radiological approach, in substitution to invasive histology, for evaluating the level of osteointegration and osteogenesis, in both qualitative and quantitative manners. (2) SmartBone®, a composite xeno-hybrid bone graft, was selected as the base material because of its remarkable effectiveness in clinical practice. Using pre- and post-surgery computed tomography (CT), we built 3D models that faithfully represented the patient’s anatomy, with special attention to the bone defects. (3) Results: This way, it was possible to assess whether the new bone formation respected the natural geometry of the healthy bone. In all cases of the study (four dental, one maxillo-facial, and one orthopedic) we evaluated the presence of new bone formation and volumetric increase. (4) Conclusion: The newly established radiological protocol allowed the tracking of SmartBone® effective integration and bone regeneration. Moreover, the patient’s anatomy was completely restored in the defect area and functionality completely rehabilitated without foreign body reaction or inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone tissue regeneration; computed tomography; Xenografts bone tissue regeneration; computed tomography; Xenografts

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Grottoli, C.F.; Ferracini, R.; Compagno, M.; Tombolesi, A.; Rampado, O.; Pilone, L.; Bistolfi, A.; Borrè, A.; Cingolani, A.; Perale, G. A Radiological Approach to Evaluate Bone Graft Integration in Reconstructive Surgeries. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1469.

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