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A Radiological Approach to Evaluate Bone Graft Integration in Reconstructive Surgeries

1
Industrie Biomediche Insubri SA, Via Cantonale 67, 6805 Mezzovico-Vira, Switzerland
2
Department of Surgical Sciences, Orthopaedic Clinic-IRCCS A.O.U. San Martino, 16132 Genova, Italy
3
Center for Research and Medical Studies, A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza, 10129 Torino, Italy
4
Radiologia Diagnostica Presidio CTO, Azienda Ospedaliero-Universitaria Città della Salute e della Scienza di Torino, 10129 Torino, Italy
5
Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Politecnico di Torino, Corso Duca degli Abruzzi 24, 10129 Torino, Italy
6
Department of Traumatology and Rehabilitation, C.T.O. Hospital-A.O.U. Città della Salute e della Scienza, 10129 Torino, Italy
7
Biomaterials Laboratory, Institute for Mechanical Engineering and Materials Technology, University of Applied Sciences and Arts of Southern Switzerland, Via Cantonale 2C, 6928 Manno, Switzerland
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(7), 1469; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9071469
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 29 March 2019 / Accepted: 1 April 2019 / Published: 8 April 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Biomaterials for Bone Tissue Engineering)
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Abstract

(1) Background: Bone tissue engineering is a promising tool to develop new smart solutions for regeneration of complex bone districts, from orthopedic to oral and maxillo-facial fields. In this respect, a crucial characteristic for biomaterials is the ability to fully integrate within the patient body. In this work, we developed a novel radiological approach, in substitution to invasive histology, for evaluating the level of osteointegration and osteogenesis, in both qualitative and quantitative manners. (2) SmartBone®, a composite xeno-hybrid bone graft, was selected as the base material because of its remarkable effectiveness in clinical practice. Using pre- and post-surgery computed tomography (CT), we built 3D models that faithfully represented the patient’s anatomy, with special attention to the bone defects. (3) Results: This way, it was possible to assess whether the new bone formation respected the natural geometry of the healthy bone. In all cases of the study (four dental, one maxillo-facial, and one orthopedic) we evaluated the presence of new bone formation and volumetric increase. (4) Conclusion: The newly established radiological protocol allowed the tracking of SmartBone® effective integration and bone regeneration. Moreover, the patient’s anatomy was completely restored in the defect area and functionality completely rehabilitated without foreign body reaction or inflammation. View Full-Text
Keywords: bone tissue regeneration; computed tomography; Xenografts bone tissue regeneration; computed tomography; Xenografts
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Grottoli, C.F.; Ferracini, R.; Compagno, M.; Tombolesi, A.; Rampado, O.; Pilone, L.; Bistolfi, A.; Borrè, A.; Cingolani, A.; Perale, G. A Radiological Approach to Evaluate Bone Graft Integration in Reconstructive Surgeries. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1469.

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