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Open AccessArticle

Prediction of Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concrete Using Entirely Steel Slag Aggregates: Novel Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Approaches

University of Transport Technology, Hanoi 100000, Vietnam
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1113; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061113
Received: 14 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 16 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Soft Computing Techniques in Structural Engineering and Materials)
Geopolymer concrete (GPC) is applied successfully in the construction of civil engineering structures. This outcome confirmed that GPC can be used as an alternative material to conventional ordinary Portland cement concrete (OPC). Recent investigations were attempted to incorporate recycled aggregates into GPC to reduce the use of natural materials such as stone and sand. However, traditional methodology used to predict compressive strength and to find out an optimum mix for GPC is yet to be formulated, especially in cases of GPC using by-products as aggregates. In this study, we propose novel hybrid artificial intelligence (AI) approaches, namely a particle swarm optimization (PSO)-based adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (PSOANFIS) and a genetic algorithm (GA)-based adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system (GAANFIS) to predict the 28-day compressive strength of GPC containing 100% waste slag aggregates. To construct and validate these models, 21 different mixes with 210 specimens were casted and tested. Three input parameters were used to predict the tested compressive strength of GPC, i.e., the sodium solution (NaOH) concentration (varied from 10 to 14 M), the mass ratio of alkaline activation solution to fly ash (AAS/FA), ranging from 0.4 to 0.5, and the mass ratio of sodium silicate (Na2SiO3) to sodium hydroxide solution (SS/SH) which was varied from 2 to 3. The compressive strength of the fabricated GPC was used as output parameter for the prediction models. Validation of the models was done using several statistical criteria such as mean absolute error (MAE), root-mean-square error (RMSE), and correlation coefficient (R). The results show that the PSOANFIS and GAANFIS models have strong potential for predicting the 28-day compressive strength of GPC, but the PSOANFIS (MAE = 1.847 MPa, RMSE = 2.251 MPa, and R = 0.934) was slightly better than the GAANFIS (MAE = 2.115 MPa, RMSE = 2.531 MPa, and R = 0.927). This study will help in reducing the time and cost for the implementation of laboratory experiments in designing the optimum proportions of GPC. View Full-Text
Keywords: compressive strength; geopolymer concrete; adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system; artificial intelligence compressive strength; geopolymer concrete; adaptive network-based fuzzy inference system; artificial intelligence
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Dao, D.V.; Trinh, S.H.; Ly, H.-B.; Pham, B.T. Prediction of Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concrete Using Entirely Steel Slag Aggregates: Novel Hybrid Artificial Intelligence Approaches. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1113.

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