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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1069;

In-Line Dimensional Inspection of Warm-Die Forged Revolution Workpieces Using 3D Mesh Reconstruction

Laboratory of CAD CAM CAE, Universidad EAFIT, Cra 49 no 7-sur-50, Medellín 050022, Colombia
Vicomtech, Paseo Mikeletegi 57, Parque Científico y Tecnológico de Gipuzkoa, 20009 Donostia/San Sebastián, Spain
Computational Intelligence Group, CCIA Department, UPV/EHU, Paseo Manuel Lardizabal 1, 20018 Donostia/San Sebastián, Spain
CIS & Electronics Department, University of Mondragon, Loramendi Kalea 5, 20500 Mondragon, Spain
GKN Driveline Legazpi S.A., Calle Urola 10, 20230 Legazpi, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 12 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 12 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Industrial dimensional assessment presents instances in which early control is exerted among “warm” (approx. 600 C) pieces. Early control saves resources, as defective processes are timely stopped and corrected. Existing literature is devoid of dimensional assessment on warm workpieces. In response to this absence, this manuscript presents the implementation and results of an optical system which performs in-line dimensional inspection of revolution warm workpieces singled out from the (forming) process. Our system can automatically measure, in less than 60 s, the circular runout of warm revolution workpieces. Such a delay would be 20 times longer if cool-downs were required. Off-line comparison of the runout of T-temperature workpieces (27 C ≤ T ≤ 560 C) shows a maximum difference of 0.1 mm with respect to standard CMM (Coordinate Measurement Machine) runout of cold workpieces (27 C), for workpieces as long as 160 mm. Such a difference is acceptable for the forging process in which the system is deployed. The test results show no correlation between the temperature and the runout of the workpiece at such level of uncertainty. A prior-to-operation Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test validates the repeatability and reproducibility (R&R) of our measurement system. In-line assessment of warm workpieces fills a gap in manufacturing processes where early detection of dimensional misfits compensates for the precision loss of the vision system. The integrated in-line system reduces the number of defective workpieces by 95 % . View Full-Text
Keywords: in-line dimensional inspection; warm forming; 3D mesh reconstruction; optical system; revolution workpiece in-line dimensional inspection; warm forming; 3D mesh reconstruction; optical system; revolution workpiece

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Mejia-Parra, D.; Sánchez, J.R.; Ruiz-Salguero, O.; Alonso, M.; Izaguirre, A.; Gil, E.; Palomar, J.; Posada, J. In-Line Dimensional Inspection of Warm-Die Forged Revolution Workpieces Using 3D Mesh Reconstruction. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1069.

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