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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1068; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061068

Nondestructive Testing with 3MA—An Overview of Principles and Applications

Fraunhofer Institute for Nondestructive Testing IZFP, Campus E3 1, 66123 Saarbrücken, Germany
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Received: 1 February 2019 / Revised: 7 March 2019 / Accepted: 8 March 2019 / Published: 14 March 2019
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Abstract

More than three decades ago, at Fraunhofer IZFP, research activities that were related to the application of micromagnetic methods for nondestructive testing (NDT) of the microstructure and the properties of ferrous materials commenced. Soon, it was observed that it is beneficial to combine the measuring information from several micromagnetic methods and measuring parameters. This was the birth of 3MA—the micromagnetic multi-parametric microstructure and stress analysis. Since then, 3MA has undergone a remarkable development. It has proven to be one of the most valuable testing techniques for the nondestructive characterization of metallic materials. Nowadays, 3MA is well accepted in industrial production and material research. Over the years, several equipment variants and a wide range of probe heads have been developed, ranging from magnetic microscopes with µm resolution up to large inspection systems for in-line strip steel inspection. 3MA is extremely versatile, as proved by a huge amount of reported applications, such as the quantitative determination of hardness, hardening depth, residual stress, and other material parameters. Today, specialized 3MA systems are available for manual or automated testing of various materials, semi-finished goods, and final products that are made of steel, cast iron, or other ferromagnetic materials. This paper will provide an overview of the historical development, the basic principles, and the main applications of 3MA. View Full-Text
Keywords: 3MA; case-depth; hardness; micromagnetic; NDT; residual stress; steel; tensile strength; yield strength 3MA; case-depth; hardness; micromagnetic; NDT; residual stress; steel; tensile strength; yield strength
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Wolter, B.; Gabi, Y.; Conrad, C. Nondestructive Testing with 3MA—An Overview of Principles and Applications. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1068.

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