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Article

Experimental Assessment of an Electrofilter and a Tandem Positive-Negative Corona Charger for the Measurement of Charged Nanoparticles formed in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems

1
Institute for Internal Combustion Engines and Thermodynamics, Graz University of Technology, 8010 Graz, Austria
2
AVL GmbH; 8020 Graz, Austria
3
Naneos Particle Solutions GmbH, 5210 Windisch, Switzerland
4
European Commission, Joint Research Centre, 21027 Ispra, Italy
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(6), 1051; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061051
Received: 15 February 2019 / Revised: 9 March 2019 / Accepted: 11 March 2019 / Published: 13 March 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Air Pollution)
Onboard measurement of non-volatile particle number (PN) emissions with portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS) was introduced for the type-approval of passenger cars in Europe since 2017 and is foreseen for heavy-duty (HD) vehicles in 2021. First studies on the performance of PN-PEMS with HD engine exhaust revealed larger differences between established PN-PEMS techniques than what was observed for passenger cars. Particles forming in selective catalytic reduction (SCR) systems for NOx of late technology HD engines have recently been identified as a potential reason for the observed differences. The formed particles have a size distribution peaking below the regulatory limit of 23 nm and most importantly acquire high (more than one) positive charges at the elevated exhaust temperatures. Precise measurement of such highly charged nanosized particles with PN-PEMS instrumentation utilizing diffusion charger (DC) based counters requires proper conditioning of these charges. Two approaches were investigated in this study: (a) an electrofilter (EF) to completely remove charged particles below the regulated size and (b) a tandem negative-positive corona (TC) charger to directly condition pre-charged particles. The two technical solutions were tested alongside the unmodified DC-based PN-PEMS, a PN-PEMS utilizing a condensation particle counter (CPC) and a reference stationary PN system using exhaust of two SCR-equipped HD engines. The results confirmed that the particles forming in such SCR systems are responsible for the observed inconsistencies and that both technical solutions efficiently address the interferences of these pre-charged nanoparticles. View Full-Text
Keywords: air pollution; vehicle emissions; particle number (PN); portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS); selective catalytic reduction (SCR); diffusion charger (DC); electrofilter air pollution; vehicle emissions; particle number (PN); portable emissions measurement systems (PEMS); selective catalytic reduction (SCR); diffusion charger (DC); electrofilter
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MDPI and ACS Style

Schwelberger, M.; Mamakos, A.; Fierz, M.; Giechaskiel, B. Experimental Assessment of an Electrofilter and a Tandem Positive-Negative Corona Charger for the Measurement of Charged Nanoparticles formed in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061051

AMA Style

Schwelberger M, Mamakos A, Fierz M, Giechaskiel B. Experimental Assessment of an Electrofilter and a Tandem Positive-Negative Corona Charger for the Measurement of Charged Nanoparticles formed in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(6):1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061051

Chicago/Turabian Style

Schwelberger, Matthias, Athanasios Mamakos, Martin Fierz, and Barouch Giechaskiel. 2019. "Experimental Assessment of an Electrofilter and a Tandem Positive-Negative Corona Charger for the Measurement of Charged Nanoparticles formed in Selective Catalytic Reduction Systems" Applied Sciences 9, no. 6: 1051. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9061051

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