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Open AccessArticle

Measurement of Off-Flavoring Volatile Compounds and Microbial Load as a Probable Marker for Keeping Quality of Pasteurized Milk

1
School of Food Sciences, Washington State University, Pullman, WA 99164-5110, USA
2
Department of Dairy Technology, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 5400, Pakistan
3
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Lahore 5400, Pakistan
4
University Institute of Diet and Nutritional Sciences, The University of Lahore, Lahore 54000, Pakistan
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School of Exercise and Nutrition, Deakin University, Victoria 3217, Australia
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Department of Biosciences, COMSATS University Islamabad, Tarlai Kalan, Islamabad 46000, Pakistan
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Department of Clinical Laboratory Sciences, College of Applied Medical Sciences, Jouf University, Sakaka 72341, Saudi Arabia
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Student Research Committee, Bam University of Medical Sciences, Bam 44340847, Iran
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LEPABE—Department of Chemical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Porto, Rua Dr. Roberto Frias, s/n, 4200-465 Porto, Portugal
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Food Safety Research Center (salt), Semnan University of Medical Sciences, Semnan 3519899951, Iran
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Faculty of Medicine, University of Porto, Alameda Prof. Hernâni Monteiro, 4200-319 Porto, Portugal
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Institute for Research and Innovation in Health (i3S), University of Porto, 4200-135 Porto, Portugal
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(5), 959; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050959
Received: 23 January 2019 / Revised: 19 February 2019 / Accepted: 27 February 2019 / Published: 6 March 2019
(1) Background: Multiple attempts have been conducted to correlate milk keeping quality with chemical, physical or bacteriological parameters. These methods only measure the chemical changes in milk produced by bacteria. Headspace solid-phase micro-extraction (HS-SPME) is an economic and recent method used to measure both volatile compounds and microbial load in milk, also allowing to keep the quality of the milk product. (2) Methods: The present study was conducted to identify and measure the off-flavoring volatile compounds through gas chromatography coupled with flame ionization detector (GC-FID) and the microbial load of pasteurized fluid milk stored at different temperatures, as a possible indicator of its keeping quality. (3) Results: The highest results were obtained to acetone, followed by butanone, pentanal and ethanol. These mean values were significantly enhanced from the 0 to 19th day of storage, at 10 °C. At day 19th, the minimum score for aroma, flavor and overall acceptability were also recorded as 4.33 ± 0.17, 4.02 ± 0.06, 4.00 ± 0.04, respectively. Likewise, maximum values for standard plate count (Log10 CFU 15.54 ± 0.40 mL−1) and total psychotroph count (Log10 CFU 11.67 ± 0.30mL−1) were reported at 10 °C and 4 °C. (4) Conclusion: HS-SPME/GC-FID methodology revealed to be very sensitive and capable to be applied in volatile compounds quantification in pasteurized milk produced during the storage period at different temperatures. View Full-Text
Keywords: pasteurized milk; microbial load; off-flavoring volatile compounds; storage stability pasteurized milk; microbial load; off-flavoring volatile compounds; storage stability
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rashid, A.; Javed, I.; Rasco, B.; Sablani, S.; Ayaz, M.; Ali, M.A.; Abdullah, M.; Imran, M.; Gondal, T.A.; Afzal, M.I.; Atif, M.; Salehi, B.; Rodrigues, C.F.; Sharifi-Rad, J.; Martins, N. Measurement of Off-Flavoring Volatile Compounds and Microbial Load as a Probable Marker for Keeping Quality of Pasteurized Milk. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 959. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050959

AMA Style

Rashid A, Javed I, Rasco B, Sablani S, Ayaz M, Ali MA, Abdullah M, Imran M, Gondal TA, Afzal MI, Atif M, Salehi B, Rodrigues CF, Sharifi-Rad J, Martins N. Measurement of Off-Flavoring Volatile Compounds and Microbial Load as a Probable Marker for Keeping Quality of Pasteurized Milk. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(5):959. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050959

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rashid, Anjum; Javed, Imran; Rasco, Barbara; Sablani, Shyam; Ayaz, Muhammad; Ali, Muhammad A.; Abdullah, Muhammad; Imran, Muhammad; Gondal, Tanweer A.; Afzal, Muhammad I.; Atif, Muhammad; Salehi, Bahare; Rodrigues, Célia F.; Sharifi-Rad, Javad; Martins, Natália. 2019. "Measurement of Off-Flavoring Volatile Compounds and Microbial Load as a Probable Marker for Keeping Quality of Pasteurized Milk" Appl. Sci. 9, no. 5: 959. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9050959

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