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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 568; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030568

Impact of Interactions between Ferulic and Chlorogenic Acids on Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Lipids Oxidation: An Example of Bread Enriched with Green Coffee Flour

1
Department of Biochemistry and Food Chemistry, University of Life Sciences, Skromna Str. 8, 20-704 Lublin, Poland
2
Department of Thermal Technology and Food Process Engineering, University of Life Sciences, Doświadczalna Str. 44, 20-280 Lublin, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 4 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemistry)
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Abstract

This study investigated the activity, mode of inhibition, and interactions between lipoxygenase (LOX) inhibitors and compounds able to inhibit lipids oxidation (LPO) derived from green coffee beans (GCBs), wholemeal wheat flour (WF), and bread enriched with GCB, in comparison with pure chemical standards of the main active components—ferulic (FA) and chlorogenic acids (CGA). Both GCB and WF contain potentially bioaccessible and bioavailable LPO inhibitors acting synergistically. Both FA and CGA presented nearly additive interaction. Potentially bioaccessible LOX inhibitors from GCB and WF acted synergistically, whereas moderate antagonism was found for potentially bioavailable compounds. The activity of CGA and FA was quite similar (EC50 = 18.56 and 22.36 μg DW/mL, respectively) and synergistic action between these components was found. The LPO activity of functional breads was positively correlated with the percentage of GCB (R2 = 0.98). Ferulic acid and CGA acted as competitive LOX inhibitors, whereas potentially bioaccessible compounds from bread enriched with GCB demonstrated an uncompetitive mode of action. Green coffee beans, WF, and the proposed functional product could be helpful in dietary therapy and prevention of so-called lifestyle disorders related with the lipid metabolism. Moreover, this paper highlights the need to study the interactions between the active ingredients of newly designed functional products. View Full-Text
Keywords: ferulic acid; chlorogenic acid; lipoxygenase; lipids peroxidation; interactions ferulic acid; chlorogenic acid; lipoxygenase; lipids peroxidation; interactions
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
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Gawlik-Dziki, U.; Bryda, J.; Dziki, D.; Świeca, M.; Habza-Kowalska, E.; Złotek, U. Impact of Interactions between Ferulic and Chlorogenic Acids on Enzymatic and Non-Enzymatic Lipids Oxidation: An Example of Bread Enriched with Green Coffee Flour. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 568.

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