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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(3), 556; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9030556

A Novel Base-Station Selection Strategy for Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) Communications

1,†
,
2,*,†,‡
,
1
and
1,2
1
Faculty of Science and Engineering, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
2
Global Information and Telecommunication Institute, Waseda University, Shinjuku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Current address: Waseda University 66 bldg. 802, 3-14-9 Ookubo. Shinjuku-ku, Tokyo 169-8555, Japan.
Received: 11 January 2019 / Revised: 29 January 2019 / Accepted: 31 January 2019 / Published: 8 February 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering)
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Abstract

Cellular vehicle-to-everything (C-V2X) communication facilitates the improved safety, comfort, and efficiency of vehicles and mobility by exchanging information between vehicles and other entities. In general, only the macrocell or only the femtocell is the communication infrastructure for C-V2X. Currently, a macro-femtocell network is used as the new C-V2X networking architecture. However, there are two unresolved problems for C-V2X in macro-femtocell networks. Firstly, vehicle mobility requires the frequent switching of connections between different base stations; invalid switching results in worse communication quality. Secondly, unintelligent base station selections cause network congestion and network-load imbalance. To address the above challenges, this paper proposes a base station selection strategy based on a Markov decision policy for a vehicle in a macro-femtocell system. Firstly, we present a mechanism to predict received signal strength (RSS) for base station selection. Secondly, a comparing Markov decision policy algorithm is presented in C-V2X. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first attempt to achieve predicted RSS based on a Markov decision policy in C-V2X technology. To validate the proposed mechanism, we simulated the traditional base station selection and our proposal when the vehicle moved at different speeds. This demonstrates that the effectiveness of a traditional base station selection policy is obvious only at high speeds, and this weakness can be resolved by our proposal. Then, we compare our solution with the traditional base station selection policy. The simulation results show that our solution is effective at switching connections between base stations, and it can effectively prevent the overloading of network resources. View Full-Text
Keywords: C-V2X; macro-femtocell system; Markov decision policy; load-balance control C-V2X; macro-femtocell system; Markov decision policy; load-balance control
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Hua, Q.; Yu, K.; Wen, Z.; Sato, T. A Novel Base-Station Selection Strategy for Cellular Vehicle-to-Everything (C-V2X) Communications. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 556.

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