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Open AccessArticle

Effect of Interlayer Cooling Time, Constraint and Tool Path Strategy on Deformation of Large Components Made by Laser Metal Deposition with Wire

1
Computational Sciences & Engineering Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
2
Manufacturing Demonstration Facility, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Knoxville, TN 37932, USA
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Energy and Transportation Science Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
4
EWI Buffalo Manufacturing Works, 683 Northland Ave., Buffalo, NY 14211, USA
5
Materials Science and Technology Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37830, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Notice of Copyright. This manuscript has been authored by UT-Battelle, LLC under Contract No. DE-AC05-00OR22725 with the U.S. Department of Energy. The United States Government retains and the publisher, by accepting the article for publication, acknowledges that the United States Government retains a non-exclusive, paid-up, irrevocable, world-wide license to publish or reproduce the published form of this manuscript, or allow others to do so, for United States Government purposes. The Department of Energy will provide public access to these results of federally sponsored research in accordance with the DOE Public Access Plan (http://energy.gov/downloads/doe-public-access-plan).
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(23), 5115; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9235115
Received: 4 November 2019 / Revised: 19 November 2019 / Accepted: 20 November 2019 / Published: 26 November 2019
Laser metal deposition with wire (LMD-w) is a developing additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has a high deposition material rate and efficiency and is suitable for fabrication of large aerospace components. However, control of material properties, geometry, and residual stresses is needed before LMD-w technology can be widely adopted for the construction of critical structural components. In this study, we investigated the effect of interlayer cooling time, clamp constraints, and tool path strategy on part distortion and residual stresses in large-scale laser additive manufactured Ti-6Al-4V components using finite element method (FEM). The simulations were validated with the temperature and the distortion measurements obtained from a real LMD-w process. We found that a shorter interlayer cooling time, full clamping constraints on the build plates, and a bidirectional tool path with 180° rotation minimized part distortion and residual stresses and resulted in symmetric stress distribution. View Full-Text
Keywords: large-scale additive manufacturing; interlayer cooling time; process parameter optimization; part deformation; Ti-6Al-4V large-scale additive manufacturing; interlayer cooling time; process parameter optimization; part deformation; Ti-6Al-4V
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Lee, Y.; Bandari, Y.; Nandwana, P.; Gibson, B.T.; Richardson, B.; Simunovic, S. Effect of Interlayer Cooling Time, Constraint and Tool Path Strategy on Deformation of Large Components Made by Laser Metal Deposition with Wire. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 5115.

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