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Article

Green Production of Glycerol Ketals with a Clay-Based Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst

1
Faculty of Sciences of Tunis, Tunis–Manar University, Tunis 2092, Tunisia
2
Laboratory Materials Composites and Clay Minerals, Group of Green and Applied Organic Chemistry, National Center for Research in Materials Science, Borj Cerdia Technopole, Soliman 8027, Tunisia
3
Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials, Faculty of Chemistry, Complutense University of Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
4
Department of Mechanical, Chemical and Industrial Design Engineering, ETSIDI, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Ronda de Valencia 3, 28012 Madrid, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(21), 4488; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214488
Received: 20 September 2019 / Revised: 12 October 2019 / Accepted: 16 October 2019 / Published: 23 October 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Chemical and Molecular Sciences)
Glycerol remains a bottleneck for the biodiesel industry as well as an opportunity from the biorefinery perspective, having a notable reactivity as a platform chemical. In particular, glycerol ketals can be envisaged as oxygenates for fuel formulation. In this study, we have focused on the green synthesis of glycerol ketals by reacting glycerol with acyclic (acetone, butanone) and cyclic (cyclohexanone) ketones in the presence of an acid activated clay Tunisian AC in homogeneous systems under quasi-solventless conditions. These reactions were followed by on-line Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) (namely, ReactIR 10). Firstly, the contacting time was selected studying the activity, stability and chemical characteristics of a set of catalysts. The 1-h activated clay AC was further characterized by X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Scanning Electronic Microscopy with Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (SEM/EDS). Finally, the effect of the main operational variables (catalyst concentration, reagents molar ratio, time and temperature) were checked and we reflected on adequate second-order kinetic models with partial first-order deactivation. View Full-Text
Keywords: clay; green synthesis; glycerol; ketone; ketals; oxygenated additives; catalyst clay; green synthesis; glycerol; ketone; ketals; oxygenated additives; catalyst
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amri, S.; Gómez, J.; Balea, A.; Merayo, N.; Srasra, E.; Besbes, N.; Ladero, M. Green Production of Glycerol Ketals with a Clay-Based Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 4488. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214488

AMA Style

Amri S, Gómez J, Balea A, Merayo N, Srasra E, Besbes N, Ladero M. Green Production of Glycerol Ketals with a Clay-Based Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(21):4488. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214488

Chicago/Turabian Style

Amri, Sondes, Jaime Gómez, Ana Balea, Noemi Merayo, Ezzeddine Srasra, Néji Besbes, and Miguel Ladero. 2019. "Green Production of Glycerol Ketals with a Clay-Based Heterogeneous Acid Catalyst" Applied Sciences 9, no. 21: 4488. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9214488

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