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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(2), 245; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9020245

Influence of Gemini Surfactants on Biochemical Profile and Ultrastructure of Aspergillus brasiliensis

1
Institute of Fermentation Technology and Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Food Science, Lodz University of Technology, Wólczańska 171/173, 90-924 Lodz, Poland
2
Laboratory of Microscopic Imaging and Specialized Biological Techniques, Faculty of Biology and Environmental Protection, University of Lodz, Banacha 12/16, 90-237 Lodz, Poland
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 2 December 2018 / Revised: 6 January 2019 / Accepted: 7 January 2019 / Published: 10 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Applied Biosciences and Bioengineering)
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Abstract

In this study, we investigated the activities of hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) (C6), pentamethylene-1,5-bis-(N,N-dimethyl-N-dodecylammonium bromide) (C5), and their two neutral analogues: hexamethylene-1,6-bis-(N-methyl-N-dodecylamine) (A6) and pentamethylene-1,5-bis-(N-methyl-N-dodecylamine) (A5) at concentrations of ½ MIC, MIC, and 2 MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) against hyphal forms of Aspergillus brasiliensis ATCC 16404. Enzymatic profiles were determined using the API-ZYM system. Extracellular proteins were extracted from the mycelia and analyzed using sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE). The ultrastructure was evaluated using a transmission electron microscope (TEM). Both groups of surfactants caused changes in the enzyme profiles. Larger changes in the number and concentration of enzymes were noted after the action of non-ionic gemini surfactants, which may have been due to the 100× higher concentration of neutral compounds. Larger differences between the protein profiles of the control sample and the biocide samples were observed following the use of cationic compounds. On the basis of TEM analyses, we found that, with increasing concentrations of compound C6, the mycelium cells gradually degraded. After treatment at 2 MIC, only membranous structures, multiform bodies, and dense electron pellets remained. Based on these results, we concluded that cationic gemini surfactants, in comparison with their non-ionic analogues, could have a wide range of practical applications as active compounds. View Full-Text
Keywords: gemini surfactants; antifungal activity; Aspergillus; proteins profile; enzymes; ultrastructure gemini surfactants; antifungal activity; Aspergillus; proteins profile; enzymes; ultrastructure
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Koziróg, A.; Otlewska, A.; Gapińska, M.; Michlewska, S. Influence of Gemini Surfactants on Biochemical Profile and Ultrastructure of Aspergillus brasiliensis. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 245.

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