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Article

Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints of the REE Accumulation in the Almásfüzitő Red Mud Depository in Northwest Hungary

Department of Mineralogy, Geochemistry and Petrology, University of Szeged, 6702 Szeged, Hungary
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Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(18), 3654; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183654
Received: 27 June 2019 / Revised: 18 July 2019 / Accepted: 30 August 2019 / Published: 4 September 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sustainable Utilization of Primary and Secondary Raw Materials)
Detailed mineralogical and geochemical study of red mud samples from Hungary suggests geological and geochemical processes that determine the spatial distribution of certain elements inside the red mud pitfalls. The major processes are the following: (1) Heavy mineral grains (anatase, rutile, titanomagnetite, etc.) tend to subside due to gravitational differentiation and at present accumulate in the deepest horizons of the pitfalls. (2) Kaolinite reacts to cancrinite under hyperalkaline conditions. (3) Due to diagenetic processes, goethite-cancrinite aggregates form in situ. (4) Light mineral grains (e.g., cancrinite) move upward. (5) Cancrinite transforms to calcite at the shallowest horizons, due probably to the reaction with atmospheric CO2. All these processes have a significant role in accumulation tendencies of different groups of elements inside the pitfalls. The behaviour of chalcophile elements and the HFSE elements follow common geochemical rules and remind features of the host bauxite or even its precursor igneous or metamorphic lithologies. The REEs and Sc are possibly adsorbed on goethite and in the channels of cancrinite. Based on linear mixing model calculations, the major container of these elements is cancrinite. The proportion of the REEs and Sc in the Ti-phases, carbonates, phosphates, zircon, etc. is subordinate relative to the amount accumulated by goethite and cancrinite. View Full-Text
Keywords: red mud; bauxite processing residue; rare earth elements; cancrinite; goethite red mud; bauxite processing residue; rare earth elements; cancrinite; goethite
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MDPI and ACS Style

M. Tóth, T.; Schubert, F.; Raucsik, B.; Fintor, K. Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints of the REE Accumulation in the Almásfüzitő Red Mud Depository in Northwest Hungary. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3654. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183654

AMA Style

M. Tóth T, Schubert F, Raucsik B, Fintor K. Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints of the REE Accumulation in the Almásfüzitő Red Mud Depository in Northwest Hungary. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(18):3654. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183654

Chicago/Turabian Style

M. Tóth, Tivadar, Félix Schubert, Béla Raucsik, and Krisztián Fintor. 2019. "Mineralogical and Geochemical Constraints of the REE Accumulation in the Almásfüzitő Red Mud Depository in Northwest Hungary" Applied Sciences 9, no. 18: 3654. https://doi.org/10.3390/app9183654

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