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Open AccessArticle

Sex Differences in the Footprint Analysis During the Entire Gait Cycle in a Functional Equinus Condition: Novel Cross Sectional Research

Facultad de Enfermería, Fisioterapia y Podología, Universidad Complutense de Madrid, 28040 Madrid, Spain
Faculty of Health Sciences, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28922 Alcorcón, Spain
Departament of Physiotherapy and Podiatry, Premium Madrid, 28017 Madrid, Spain
Research, Health and Podiatry Unit, Department of Health Sciences, Faculty of Nursing and Podiatry, Universidade da Coruña, 15403 Ferrol, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(17), 3611;
Received: 3 August 2019 / Revised: 24 August 2019 / Accepted: 28 August 2019 / Published: 2 September 2019
Some studies suggest that gender is related to gait. Females show significantly higher ankle motion and vertical ground reaction forces. Males have significantly larger plantar contact surface areas in all regions of the foot than females in most, but not all, prior studies. However, there is no research on sex differences in a functional equinus condition. In this study, 119 individuals, including 59 females (29.7 ± 5.15 years, 58.74 ± 6.66 kg, 163.65 ± 5.58 cm) and 60 males (31.22 ± 6.06 years, 75.67 ± 9.81 kg, 177.10 ± 6.16 cm), with a functional equinus condition walked onto a pressure platform. In two separate testing sessions, five trials of each foot were conducted for the first, second, and third steps. We measured the contact surface areas for each of the three phases of the stance phase. We computed the intraclass correlation coefficient and standard error of the mean to assess the reliability. We found significantly greater contact surface areas in males than females in the first, second, and third steps in all phases of the stance phase: heel strike, mid-stance, and take-off. This is important information for the design of footwear and orthotics and gender knowledge. In a functional equinus condition, males have registered greater contact surface areas than females in all phases of the dynamic footprint of the stance phase. View Full-Text
Keywords: gender; foot; reliability; platform; biomechanical phase gender; foot; reliability; platform; biomechanical phase
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Martínez-Jiménez, E.M.; Becerro de Bengoa-Vallejo, R.; Losa-Iglesias, M.E.; Díaz-Velázquez, J.I.; Casado-Hernández, I.; Calvo-Lobo, C.; López-López, D.; Rodríguez-Sanz, D. Sex Differences in the Footprint Analysis During the Entire Gait Cycle in a Functional Equinus Condition: Novel Cross Sectional Research. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3611.

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