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Optimizing Android Facial Expressions Using Genetic Algorithms

Intelligent Robot Engineering, Korea University of Science and Technology (UST), Ansan 15588, Korea
Robotics R&D Group, Korea Institute of Industrial Technology (KITECH), Ansan 15588, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3379;
Received: 30 July 2019 / Accepted: 14 August 2019 / Published: 16 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Computing and Artificial Intelligence)
PDF [1571 KB, uploaded 16 August 2019]


Because the internal structure, degree of freedom, skin control position and range of the android face are different, it is very difficult to generate facial expressions by applying existing facial expression generation methods. In addition, facial expressions differ among robots because they are designed subjectively. To address these problems, we developed a system that can automatically generate robot facial expressions by combining an android, a recognizer capable of classifying facial expressions and a genetic algorithm. We have developed two types (older men and young women) of android face robots that can simulate human skin movements. We selected 16 control positions to generate the facial expressions of these robots. The expressions were generated by combining the displacements of 16 motors. A chromosome comprising 16 genes (motor displacements) was generated by applying real-coded genetic algorithms; subsequently, it was used to generate robot facial expressions. To determine the fitness of the generated facial expressions, expression intensity was evaluated through a facial expression recognizer. The proposed system was used to generate six facial expressions (angry, disgust, fear, happy, sad, surprised); the results confirmed that they were more appropriate than manually generated facial expressions. View Full-Text
Keywords: facial expression; android; genetic algorithms facial expression; android; genetic algorithms

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Hyung, H.-J.; Yoon, H.U.; Choi, D.; Lee, D.-Y.; Lee, D.-W. Optimizing Android Facial Expressions Using Genetic Algorithms. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3379.

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