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Preparation of an Asymmetric Membrane from Sugarcane Bagasse Using DMSO as Green Solvent

Department of Chemistry, Quy Nhon University, Quy Nhon 590000, VietNam
Laboratory for Process Engineering for Sustainable Systems, Department of Chemical Engineering, KU Leuven, Celestijnenlaan 200F, 3001 Leuven, Belgium
Faculty of Engineering and the Built Environment, Tshwane University of Technology, Private Bag X680, Pretoria 0001, South Africa
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3347;
Received: 16 July 2019 / Revised: 5 August 2019 / Accepted: 12 August 2019 / Published: 14 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Section Nanotechnology and Applied Nanosciences)
PDF [2078 KB, uploaded 14 August 2019]


Asymmetric cellulose acetate membranes have been successfully fabricated by phase inversion, using sugarcane bagasse (SB) as the starting material. SB is a raw material with high potential to produce cellulose derivatives due to its structure and morphology. Cellulose was extracted from SB by pretreatment with solutions of 5 wt% NaOH, 0.5 wt% EDTA; then bleached with 2 wt% H2O2. Cellulose acetate (CA) was prepared by the reaction between extracted cellulose with acetic anhydride, and H2SO4 as a catalyst. The obtained CA exhibited a high degree of substitution (2.81), determined with 1H-NMR spectroscopy and titration. The functional groups and thermal analysis of the extracted cellulose and the synthesized CA have been investigated by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The change in the crystallinity of the extracted cellulose and CA was evaluated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) spectroscopy. Asymmetric membranes were fabricated using dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as the solvent, with a casting thickness of 250 µm. The obtained membranes were studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), DSC and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The hydrophilicity of the membranes was evaluated, as demonstrated by the measurement of water contact angle (WCA) and water content. Furthermore, the antifouling properties of membranes were also investigated.
Keywords: sugarcane bagasse; cellulose acetate; DMSO; phase inversion; asymmetric membrane sugarcane bagasse; cellulose acetate; DMSO; phase inversion; asymmetric membrane
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Nu, D.T.T.; Hung, N.P.; Hoang, C.V.; Van der Bruggen, B. Preparation of an Asymmetric Membrane from Sugarcane Bagasse Using DMSO as Green Solvent. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3347.

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