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Open AccessArticle

Detecting the Void behind the Tunnel Lining by Impact-Echo Methods with Different Signal Analysis Approaches

by Rongning Cao 1,2, Meng Ma 1,2,*, Ruihua Liang 1,2 and Chao Niu 3
1
Key Laboratory of Urban Underground Engineering of Ministry of Education, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
2
School of Civil Engineering, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044, China
3
CCCC Highway Consultants Co., Ltd., Beijing 100088, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(16), 3280; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9163280
Received: 4 July 2019 / Revised: 6 August 2019 / Accepted: 8 August 2019 / Published: 10 August 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nondestructive Testing (NDT))
A void behind the lining in a tunnel is considered to be a critical condition as it can significantly impair the tunnel service life. In this study, we adopted the impact-echo (IE) method to detect the voids. We designed two test conditions (tunnel lining with and without a void) for our experiments performed in a laboratory environment. The influences of void size and impact-void position were analysed using numerical simulations. The vibration response signals were analysed in the time, frequency, and time–frequency domains using various signal analysis approaches. The results were comparatively analysed to determine the best approach for void detection. The study helped establish that a tunnel void can be evaluated through the vibration energy (amplitude and duration) in the time domain, the resonance frequency and dynamic stiffness in the frequency domain, and the energy distribution in time–frequency domain. The wavelet transform analysis is the most appropriate method to observe the energy flow during the state changing and the dynamic stiffness method can determine the void position precisely. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-destructive test; impact-echo method; tunnel void; experimental model; numerical simulation; signal analysis non-destructive test; impact-echo method; tunnel void; experimental model; numerical simulation; signal analysis
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Cao, R.; Ma, M.; Liang, R.; Niu, C. Detecting the Void behind the Tunnel Lining by Impact-Echo Methods with Different Signal Analysis Approaches. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3280.

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