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Open AccessArticle

Real-Time Automated Segmentation and Classification of Calcaneal Fractures in CT Images

1
Department of Electrical Engineering, National Central University, Zhongli 32001, Taiwan
2
Department of Computer Science and Electronics, Universitas Gadjah Mada, Yogyakarta 55281, Indonesia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(15), 3011; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9153011
Received: 14 June 2019 / Revised: 17 July 2019 / Accepted: 23 July 2019 / Published: 26 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Intelligent Processing on Image and Optical Information)
Calcaneal fractures often occur because of accidents during exercise or activities. In general, the detection of the calcaneal fracture is still carried out manually through CT image observation, and as a result, there is a lack of precision in the analysis. This paper proposes a computer-aid method for the calcaneal fracture detection to acquire a faster and more detailed observation. First, the anatomical plane orientation of the tarsal bone in the input image is selected to determine the location of the calcaneus. Then, several fragments of the calcaneus image are detected and marked by color segmentation. The Sanders system is used to classify fractures in transverse and coronal images into four types, based on the number of fragments. In sagittal image, fractures are classified into three types based on the involvement of the fracture area. The experimental results show that the proposed method achieves a high precision rate of 86%, with a fast computational performance of 133 frames per second (fps), used to analyze the severity of injury to the calcaneus. The results in the test image are validated based on the assessment and evaluation carried out by the physician on the reference datasets. View Full-Text
Keywords: biomedical imaging; bone fracture; calcaneus; CT image; segmentation biomedical imaging; bone fracture; calcaneus; CT image; segmentation
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MDPI and ACS Style

Rahmaniar, W.; Wang, W.-J. Real-Time Automated Segmentation and Classification of Calcaneal Fractures in CT Images. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 3011.

AMA Style

Rahmaniar W, Wang W-J. Real-Time Automated Segmentation and Classification of Calcaneal Fractures in CT Images. Applied Sciences. 2019; 9(15):3011.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Rahmaniar, Wahyu; Wang, Wen-June. 2019. "Real-Time Automated Segmentation and Classification of Calcaneal Fractures in CT Images" Appl. Sci. 9, no. 15: 3011.

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