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Detection and Monitoring of Tunneling-Induced Riverbed Deformation Using GPS and BeiDou: A Case Study

The Key Laboratory of Urban Security and Disaster Engineering of China Ministry of Education, Beijing University of Technology, Beijing 100124, China
Department of Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, University of Houston, Houston, TX 77204, USA
No. 6 Engineering Corporation Limited, China Railway 17th Bureau Group CO., LTD., Fuzhou 350000, China
Structural Health Monitoring and Control Institute, Shijiazhuang Tiedao University, Shijiazhuang 050043, China
School of Geology and Geomatics, Tianjin Chengjian University, Tianjin 300384, China
Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, College of Engineering, Shantou University, Shantou, Guangdong 515063, China
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(13), 2759;
Received: 7 June 2019 / Revised: 2 July 2019 / Accepted: 4 July 2019 / Published: 8 July 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Structural Damage Detection and Health Monitoring)
PDF [4996 KB, uploaded 8 July 2019]


Shield tunneling under rivers often requires monitoring riverbed deformations in near real-time. However, it is challenging to measure riverbed deformation with conventional survey techniques. This study introduces a comprehensive method that uses the Global Positioning System (GPS) of the USA and the BeiDou navigation satellite system (BeiDou) of China to monitor riverbed deformation during the construction of twin tunnels beneath the Hutuo River in Shijiazhuang, China. A semi-permanent GPS network with one base station outside the river and six rover stations within the river was established for conducting near real-time and long-term monitoring. The distances between the base and the rover antennas are within two kilometers. The network was continuously operating for eight months from April to December 2018. The method is comprised of three components: (1) Monitoring the stability of the base station using precise point positioning (PPP) method, a stable regional reference frame, and a seasonal ground deformation model; (2) monitoring the relative positions of rover stations using the carrier-phase double-difference (DD) positioning method in near real-time; and (3) detecting abrupt and gradual displacements at both base and rover stations using an automated change point detection algorithm. The method is able to detect abrupt positional-changes as minor as five millimeters in near real-time and gradual positional-changes at a couple of millimeters per day within a week. The method has the flexibility of concurrent processing different GPS and BeiDou data sessions (e.g., every 15 minutes, 30 minutes, one hour, one day) for diffident monitoring purposes. This study indicates that BeiDou observations can also achieve few-millimeter-accuracy for measuring displacements. Parallel processing GPS and BeiDou observations can improve the reliability of near real-time structural deformation monitoring and minimize false alerts. The method introduced in this article can be applied to other urban areas for near real-time and long-term structural health monitoring. View Full-Text
Keywords: BeiDou; change point detection; GPS; riverbed; shield; structural health monitoring; twin tunnels BeiDou; change point detection; GPS; riverbed; shield; structural health monitoring; twin tunnels

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Guo, W.; Wang, G.; Bao, Y.; Li, P.; Zhang, M.; Gong, Q.; Li, R.; Gao, Y.; Zhao, R.; Shen, S. Detection and Monitoring of Tunneling-Induced Riverbed Deformation Using GPS and BeiDou: A Case Study. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2759.

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