Adulteration of extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) with cheaper edible oils is of considerable concern in the olive oil industry. The potential of Raman spectroscopy combined with multivariate statistics has been investigated for evaluating the authenticity (or purity) and concentration of EVOO irrespective of it being adulterated with one or more adulterants. The adulterated oil samples were prepared by blending different concentrations of EVOO (10–100% v
) randomly with cheaper edible oils such as corn, soybean and rapeseed oil. As a result, a Raman spectral database of oil samples (n
= 214 spectra) was obtained from 11 binary mixtures (EVOO and rapeseed oil), 16 ternary mixtures (EVOO, rapeseed and corn oil) and 44 quaternary mixtures (EVOO, rapeseed, corn and soybean oil). Partial least squares (PLS) calibration models with 10-fold cross validation were constructed for binary, ternary and quaternary oil mixtures to determine the purity of spiked EVOO. The PLS model on the complex dataset (binary + ternary + quaternary) where the spectra obtained with different measurement parameters and sample conditions can able to determine the purity of spiked EVOO inspite of being blended with one or more cheaper oils. As a proof of concept, in this study, we used single batch of commercial oil bottles for estimating the purity of EVOO. The developed method is not only limited to EVOO, but can be applied to clean EVOO obtained from the production site and other types of food.
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