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Open AccessArticle

Empirical Evidences for Urban Influences on Public Health in Hamburg

Department of Geography, Universität Hamburg, 20146 Hamburg, Germany
Department of Geography, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44799 Bochum, Germany
Faculty of Medicine, Ruhr-Universität Bochum, 44801 Bochum, Germany
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(11), 2303;
Received: 22 March 2019 / Revised: 30 April 2019 / Accepted: 31 May 2019 / Published: 4 June 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New and Old Environmental Impacts on Population Well Being)
From the current perspectives of urban health and environmental justice research, health is the result of a combination of individual, social and environmental factors. Yet, there are only few attempts to determine their joint influence on health and well-being. Grounded in debates surrounding conceptual models and based on a data set compiled for the city of Hamburg, this paper aims to provide insights into the most important variables influencing urban health. Theoretically, we are primarily referring to the conceptual model of health-related urban well-being (UrbWellth), which systemizes urban influences in four sectors. The systematization of the conceptual model is empirically confirmed by a principal component analysis: the factors derived from the data correspond well with the deductively derived model. Additionally, a multiple linear regression analysis was used to identify the most important variables influencing the participant’s self-rated health (SRH): rating of one’s social network, rating of neighborhood air quality, rating of neighborhood health infrastructure, heat stress (day/outdoors), cold stress (night/indoors). When controlling for age, income and smoking behavior, these variables explain 12% of the variance of SRH. Thus, these results support the concept of UrbWellth empirically. Finally, the study design helped to identify hotspots with negative impact on SRH within the research areas. View Full-Text
Keywords: UrbWellth; linear regression; self-rated health; Hamburg; well-being; urban health UrbWellth; linear regression; self-rated health; Hamburg; well-being; urban health
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von Szombathely, M.; Bechtel, B.; Lemke, B.; Oßenbrügge, J.; Pohl, T.; Pott, M. Empirical Evidences for Urban Influences on Public Health in Hamburg. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2303.

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