In order to study the axial compression behavior of concrete-filled steel tubular (CFST) columns filled with high titanium slag, a total of 32 specimens, including normal CFST columns, half-high titanium slag CFST columns, and full-high titanium slag CFST columns, were used as experimental samples in this study. The axial compression behaviors of high titanium slag CFST columns and normal CFST columns with various parameters such as length–diameter ratio, strength grade of concrete, strength grade of steel tube, steel content ratio, etc., were evaluated and compared through axial compression testing under monotonic static loading. The results showed that the axial compressive behaviors of high titanium slag CFST columns with various length–diameter ratios were not significantly different from those of normal CFST columns, both of which showed good axial compression performance. In addition, the length–diameter ratio limit between short and medium long column was from 3.5 to 4.4. The length–diameter ratio was the main factor influencing the shape of load–deformation curve of CFST columns. The casing hoop coefficient also had a great influence on the bearing capacity of short columns, while the influence on that of middle and long columns was not obvious. In the end, the bearing capacities of all specimens were calculated by bearing capacity formulas in European EC4, American AISC360-10, and Chinese GB50936-2014 standards. The calculated values were in good agreement with the test results.
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