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Fatigue Crack Growth under Non-Proportional Mixed Mode Loading in Rail and Wheel Steel Part 1: Sequential Mode I and Mode II Loading

Department of Mechanical Engineering for Transportation, Osaka Sangyo University, Osaka 574-8530, Japan
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(10), 2006; https://doi.org/10.3390/app9102006
Received: 29 March 2019 / Revised: 13 May 2019 / Accepted: 13 May 2019 / Published: 16 May 2019
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Abstract

Fatigue tests were performed to estimate the coplanar and branch crack growth rates on rail and wheel steel under non-proportional mixed mode I/II loading cycles simulating the load on rolling contact fatigue cracks; sequential and overlapping mode I and II loadings were applied to single cracks in the specimens. Long coplanar cracks were produced under certain loading conditions. The fracture surfaces observed by scanning electron microscopy and the finite element analysis results suggested that the growth was driven mainly by in-plane shear mode (i.e., mode II) loading. Crack branching likely occurred when the degree of overlap between these mode cycles increased, indicating that such degree enhancement leads to a relative increase of the maximum tangential stress range, based on an elasto–plastic stress field along the branch direction, compared to the maximum shear stress. Moreover, the crack growth rate decreased when the material strength increased because this made the crack tip displacements smaller. The branch crack growth rates could not be represented by a single crack growth law since the plastic zone size ahead of the crack tip increased with the shear part of the loading due to the T-stress, resulting in higher growth rates. View Full-Text
Keywords: non-proportional mixed mode loading; fractography; mode II stress intensity factor; finite element analysis; rail steel; wheel steel non-proportional mixed mode loading; fractography; mode II stress intensity factor; finite element analysis; rail steel; wheel steel
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Akama, M. Fatigue Crack Growth under Non-Proportional Mixed Mode Loading in Rail and Wheel Steel Part 1: Sequential Mode I and Mode II Loading. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 2006.

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