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Improvement in Classification Performance Based on Target Vector Modification for All-Transfer Deep Learning

Technology Innovation Division, Panasonic Corporation, Tokyo 135-8072, Japan
Business Innovation Division, Panasonic Corporation, Osaka 570-8501, Japan
Department of Life Science and Technology, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Tokyo 152-8550, Japan
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2019, 9(1), 128;
Received: 22 October 2018 / Revised: 29 November 2018 / Accepted: 26 December 2018 / Published: 1 January 2019
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advanced Intelligent Imaging Technology)
PDF [7180 KB, uploaded 1 January 2019]


This paper proposes a target vector modification method for the all-transfer deep learning (ATDL) method. Deep neural networks (DNNs) have been used widely in many applications; however, the DNN has been known to be problematic when large amounts of training data are not available. Transfer learning can provide a solution to this problem. Previous methods regularize all layers, including the output layer, by estimating the relation vectors, which are then used instead of one-hot target vectors of the target domain. These vectors are estimated by averaging the target domain data of each target domain label in the output space. This method improves the classification performance, but it does not consider the relation between the relation vectors. From this point of view, we propose a relation vector modification based on constrained pairwise repulsive forces. High pairwise repulsive forces provide large distances between the relation vectors. In addition, the risk of divergence is mitigated by the constraint based on distributions of the output vectors of the target domain data. We apply our method to two simulation experiments and a disease classification using two-dimensional electrophoresis images. The experimental results show that reusing all layers through our estimation method is effective, especially for a significantly small number of the target domain data. View Full-Text
Keywords: deep neural network; transfer learning; proteomics; sepsis classification deep neural network; transfer learning; proteomics; sepsis classification

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Sawada, Y.; Sato, Y.; Nakada, T.; Yamaguchi, S.; Ujimoto, K.; Hayashi, N. Improvement in Classification Performance Based on Target Vector Modification for All-Transfer Deep Learning. Appl. Sci. 2019, 9, 128.

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