# Climate Change and Power Security: Power Load Prediction for Rural Electrical Microgrids Using Long Short Term Memory and Artificial Neural Networks

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Methodology: Data Pre-Processing and Models

#### 2.1. Super-Model

#### 2.2. Long Short Term Memory Model

while (step*self.batch_size<self.training_iters) and (testing_loss_value > target_loss): current_learning_rate = self.learning_rate current_learning_rate *= 0.1 ** ((step * self.batch_size) * self.training_iter_step_down_every)

#### 2.3. Artificial Neural Network

## 3. Results and Discussion

## 4. Conclusions

## Author Contributions

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 1.**

**Top**: Annual weather conditions at the Igiugig, AK study site.

**Bottom**: Not an uncommon pattern of weather changes in one day. Notice several sudden temperature changes in access of $10{\phantom{\rule{3.33333pt}{0ex}}}^{\circ}$F occurring over 20 min window.

**Figure 2.**An illustration of the power prediction super-model. The weather conditions, power load and power generation data are showed in the Temporal Data table. The solid arrows indicate the use of data for the model training, the double arrows show the prediction of power load or power generation. While the illustration shows the overall energy microgrid management system (EMMS), we present only the details of the Long Short Term Memory and the Power Load Artificial Neural Networks models. The EMMS simply integrates the power load prediction and the power generation from the renewable sources.

**Figure 4.**LSTM’s training error loss. Eight resulting plot lines represent each LSTM trained on one weather condition. The plots show error loss during the model training. The termination condition for the model training was set if the model generalized the data with a desired error loss of $1.0\times {10}^{-7}$ or $1.0\times {10}^{6}$ training epochs was reached.

**Figure 5.**Illustration of the multilayer perceptron artificial neural network implementation for the power draw predictions. Each neuron uses a rectified linear unit (ReLU) as the activation function. The example network shows six inputs, two hidden layers, and one output.

**Figure 6.**Two sample output of the power load predictions. The blue plot line shows the predicted power load by the ANN that used the LSTM’s outputs of the predicted weather conditions, the red plot line is the ANN’s power load prediction using the measured weather conditions, and the green solid plot line is the actual measured power load. Each major unit on the x-axis is a prediction of 10 min into the future from the start time.

**Figure 7.**The results of the forecast power load. The x-axis has the predicted power load, while the y-axis has the measured power load. (

**Left**) Predicted power load for the current weather conditions with the MSE = $3.61\times {10}^{-3}$. (

**Right**) Predicted power load using the future LSTM weather predictions with the MSE = $3.65\times {10}^{-3}$.

**Figure 8.**The power load predictions results using only the temperature weather conditions. (

**Left**) Predicted power load using the current temperature conditions with the MSE = $1.20\times {10}^{-2}$. (

**Right**) Predicted power load using the future LSTM temperature predictions with the MSE = $1.66\times {10}^{-2}$.

**Figure 9.**The sample outputs of the LSTM models for the events, wind direction, wind gust speed, conditions, temperature, dew point, wind speed and temperature weather features (from the top left to the bottom right in a column-row order). The green plot line is the measured (actual) value of the reported weather feature and the red plot line is the LSTM output predicting the weather conditions for the current and 40 min into the future.

© 2018 by the authors. Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Cenek, M.; Haro, R.; Sayers, B.; Peng, J.
Climate Change and Power Security: Power Load Prediction for Rural Electrical Microgrids Using Long Short Term Memory and Artificial Neural Networks. *Appl. Sci.* **2018**, *8*, 749.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050749

**AMA Style**

Cenek M, Haro R, Sayers B, Peng J.
Climate Change and Power Security: Power Load Prediction for Rural Electrical Microgrids Using Long Short Term Memory and Artificial Neural Networks. *Applied Sciences*. 2018; 8(5):749.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050749

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Cenek, Martin, Rocco Haro, Brandon Sayers, and Jifeng Peng.
2018. "Climate Change and Power Security: Power Load Prediction for Rural Electrical Microgrids Using Long Short Term Memory and Artificial Neural Networks" *Applied Sciences* 8, no. 5: 749.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8050749