Next Article in Journal
A Study on the Influence of Stage Load on Health Monitoring of Axial Concrete Members Using Piezoelectric Based Smart Aggregate
Next Article in Special Issue
Mechanical Characterisation and Modelling of Elastomeric Shockpads
Previous Article in Journal
Throughput Maximization Using an SVM for Multi-Class Hypothesis-Based Spectrum Sensing in Cognitive Radio
Previous Article in Special Issue
Measurement of Strain and Strain Rate during the Impact of Tennis Ball Cores
Article Menu
Issue 3 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(3), 422; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8030422

Implications of Rigid Gripping Constraints on Clubhead Dynamics in Steel Golf Shafts

1
Sport and Exercise Sciences Research Institute, Ulster University, Newtownabbey BT37 0QB, UK
2
R&A Rules Ltd., St. Andrews KY16 9JD, UK
3
Qualisys AB, Kvarnbergsgatan 2, 411 05 Gothenburg, Sweden
4
School of Metallurgy & Materials, The University of Birmingham, Edgbaston, Birmingham B15 2TT, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 January 2018 / Revised: 1 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 March 2018 / Published: 12 March 2018
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sports Materials)
Full-Text   |   PDF [943 KB, uploaded 12 March 2018]   |  

Abstract

Research and equipment testing with golf robots offers much greater control and manipulation of experimental variables compared to tests using human golfers. However, whilst it is acknowledged that the club gripping mechanism of a robot is dissimilar to that of a human, there appears to be no scientific findings on the effects of these gripping differences on the clubhead at ball impact. Theoretical and experimental strain propagation rates from the clubhead to the grip and back to the clubhead were determined during robot testing with a 9-iron to determine if this time interval was sufficiently short to permit the gripping mechanism to have an effect on the clubhead during impact. Longitudinal strain appears to propagate the most quickly, but such deflections are likely to be small and therefore of little meaningful consequence. Shaft bending was not a primary concern as modes of large enough amplitude appear to propagate too slowly to be relevant. Torsional strain propagates at a rate which suggests that constraints at the grip end of a golf club could potentially influence impact dynamics for steel shafted irons; however, this effect seems unlikely to be significant, a likelihood that decreases further for longer irons. As such, it is considered reasonable to treat the influence of a robot’s gripping mechanism on clubhead dynamics at impact as negligible, and therefore comparisons between robot and human data in this regard are valid. View Full-Text
Keywords: strain propagation; torsion; golf; shaft; clubhead; robot; cannon strain propagation; torsion; golf; shaft; clubhead; robot; cannon
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).
SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Corke, T.W.; Betzler, N.F.; Wallace, E.S.; Strangwood, M.; Otto, S.R. Implications of Rigid Gripping Constraints on Clubhead Dynamics in Steel Golf Shafts. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 422.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top