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Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(2), 199;

Statistical, Spatial and Temporal Mapping of 911 Emergencies in Ecuador

Departamento de Eléctrica y Electrónica, Universidad de las Fuerzas Armadas ESPE, 171103 Sangolqui, Ecuador
Departamento de Teoría de la Señal y Comunicaciones, Sistemas Telemáticos y Computación, Universidad Rey Juan Carlos, 28943 Fuenlabrada, Spain
Center for Computational Simulation, Universidad Politécnica de Madrid, Boadilla del Monte, 28660 Madrid, Spain
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 9 January 2018 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 26 January 2018 / Published: 29 January 2018
(This article belongs to the Section Computer Science and Electrical Engineering)
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A public safety answering point (PSAP) receives alerts and attends to emergencies that occur in its responsibility area. The analysis of the events related to a PSAP can give us relevant information in order to manage them and to improve the performance of the first response institutions (FRIs) associated to every PSAP. However, current emergency systems are growing dramatically in terms of information heterogeneity and the volume of attended requests. In this work, we propose a system for statistical, spatial, and temporal analysis of incidences registered in a PSAP by using simple, yet robust and compact, event representations. The selected and designed temporal analysis tools include seasonal representations and nonparametric confidence intervals (CIs), which dissociate the main seasonal components and the transients. The spatial analysis tools include a straightforward event location over Google Maps and the detection of heat zones by means of bidimensional geographic Parzen windows with automatic width control in terms of the scales and the number of events in the region of interest. Finally, statistical representations are used for jointly analyzing temporal and spatial data in terms of the “time–space slices”. We analyzed the total number of emergencies that were attended during 2014 by seven FRIs articulated in a PSAP at the Ecuadorian 911 Integrated Security Service. Characteristic weekly patterns were observed in institutions such as the police, health, and transit services, whereas annual patterns were observed in firefighter events. Spatial and spatiotemporal analysis showed some expected patterns together with nontrivial differences among different services, to be taken into account for resource management. The proposed analysis allows for a flexible analysis by combining statistical, spatial and temporal information, and it provides 911 service managers with useful and operative information. View Full-Text
Keywords: spatial–temporal analysis; emergency alerts; public safety answering point; first response institutions spatial–temporal analysis; emergency alerts; public safety answering point; first response institutions

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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

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Corral-De-Witt, D.; Carrera, E.V.; Muñoz-Romero, S.; Rojo-Álvarez, J.L. Statistical, Spatial and Temporal Mapping of 911 Emergencies in Ecuador. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 199.

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