Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) used in pharmaceutical treatments have been shown to effectively deliver a payload, such as an active pharmaceutical ingredient or image contrast agent, to targeted tissues in need of therapy or diagnostics while minimizing exposure, availability, and accumulation to surrounding biological compartments. Data sets collected in this field of study include some toxico- and pharmacodynamic properties (e.g., distribution and metabolism) but many studies lack information about adsorption of biological molecules or absorption into cells. When nanoparticles are suspended in blood serum, a protein corona cloud forms around its surface. The extent of the applications and implications of this formed cloud are unknown. Some researchers have speculated that the successful use of nanoparticles in pharmaceutical treatments relies on a comprehensive understanding of the protein corona composition. The work presented in this paper uses a suite of data analytics and multi-variant visualization techniques to elucidate particle-to-protein interactions at the molecular level. Through mass spectrometry analyses, corona proteins were identified through large and complex datasets. With such high-output analyses, complex datasets pose a challenge when visualizing and communicating nanoparticle-protein interactions. Thus, the creation of a streamlined visualization method is necessary. A series of user-friendly data informatics techniques were used to demonstrate the data flow of protein corona characteristics. Multi-variant heat maps, pie charts, tables, and three-dimensional regression analyses were used to improve results interpretation, facilitate an iterative data transfer process, and emphasize features of the nanoparticle-protein corona system that might be controllable. Data informatics successfully highlights the differences between protein corona compositions and how they relate to nanoparticle surface charge.
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