# An Experimental Investigation on Bushing Geometrical Properties and Density in Thermal Frictional Drilling

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## Abstract

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## 1. Introduction

## 2. Materials and Methods

^{−3}µm, was used in order to measure the heights of the bushings. Bushing height (h

_{a}) is a geometrical dimension measured from the subsurface of the thermal friction drilled material to the tip of the bushing formation as seen in Figure 3. Furthermore, the bushing wall thickness is a vital geometrical dimension, affecting the process consequences, such as connecting length and strength, with the help of threading. Also, the bushing wall thickness (t

_{w}) dimension is demonstrated in Figure 3. The outer diameter of the bushing dimensions was measured with a digital caliper gage with 0.02 mm precision. The bushing wall thickness values were calculated using Equation (1):

^{3}accuracy, respectively. The volumetric measurement method of the divided samples is seen in Figure 4, in which beakers and water were used. In the measuring method, first, the beaker was filled up to the level of the integer number, and then the sample was placed in the beaker. The water, raised from the first level after the sample had been placed into the beaker, was aspirated with 0.1 g/cm

^{3}accuracy by using a pipet until the level of the water decreased to the first level before the sample was placed into the beaker. The volume of the aspirated water by the pipet was accepted as the volume of the divided sample measurements. The weight of the divided samples was measured with a digital scale, having 0.01 g precision, as seen in Figure 5b. The density and the volumetric ratio of the bushing shapes were measured with the help of the measured weight and volume of the divided samples, including bushing, as shown in Figure 5. The volumes of the samples were measured by multiplying a, b, and t dimensions, which were measured on the samples by means of a digital caliper with 0.01 mm accuracy, subtracting the volume of thermal frictional drilled hole from the volume of the sample (V

_{S}), without including the volume of the bushing as demonstrated in Equation (2):

_{S}), without including the weight of the bushing shape (W

_{B}), was calculated by multiplying the volume of the sample with the density of the A7075-T651 aluminum alloy (ρ = 2.7 gr/cm

^{3}) as seen in Equation (3).

_{S}), without including the weight of the bushing shape, was calculated by the help of Equation (3). The total weight of a sample (W

_{T}), also including bushing weight, was measured by using a digital scale gauge as seen in Figure 5b.

_{S}) from the measured total volume of the sample (V

_{T}) as shown in Equation (4):

_{S}), from the measured weight of the sample (WT) as seen in Equation (5):

_{B}) was calculated by dividing the weight of the bushing (W

_{B}) by its volume (V

_{B}), as derived in Equation (2), as mentioned above.

## 3. Results and Discussion

#### 3.1. Bushing Height and Wall Thickness

_{a}) and bushing wall thickness (t

_{w}) depended on material thickness (t) and hole diameter (d). The experiments were performed in full factorial form, as demonstrated in Table 1.

#### 3.2. The Density and the Volume Ratio of the Bushing

_{B}) to the ejected material (V

_{E}). The higher this ratio, the better the quality bushing shape without cracks and petal formation. Higher VB values indicate less material flowed and dissipated around the hole to form the bushing.

_{B}and V

_{E}in the TFD process. As clearly seen from the figure, almost no change (from 2.54 to 2.75) was observed in bushing density under the applied conditions. If we identify the ratio of V

_{B}to V

_{E}as R, the value of R can be written as in Equation (6).

## 4. Conclusions

- The bushing height and wall thickness values increased linearly with increases in both the (t) and (d) values. The effect of d was higher than the (t) values. Contrary to the literature, the bushing height values were not equal to approximately 2–3 times the TFD material thickness.
- The change in the density of the bushing was small. The recorded bushing density values were changed in the range of 2.54–2.75 gr/cm
^{3}. - The ratio of the volume of the bushing (V
_{B}) to the volume of the evacuated material (V_{E}), (R) values ranged between 61–84%. According to the recorded values, the volume of the ratio (R) was approximately 70%, i.e., between 70%–75%.

## Author Contributions

## Funding

## Acknowledgments

## Conflicts of Interest

## References

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**Figure 7.**The effects of hole diameter and material thickness on (

**a**,

**b**) bushing height, (

**c**) and (

**d**) bushing wall.

**Figure 8.**The effects of hole diameter and material thickness on the mean of (

**a**) the bushing height, (

**b**) bushing wall thickness.

**Figure 9.**The effects of hole diameter and material thickness on mean bushing height and bushing wall.

Material Thickness (tw (mm)) | Hole Diameter (d (mm)) | Bushing Height (ha (mm)) | Bushing Wall Thickness (tw (mm) |
---|---|---|---|

2 | 5 | 3.70 | 0.965 |

2 | 10 | 6.63 | 1.350 |

2 | 15 | 8.67 | 1.550 |

2 | 20 | 11.10 | 1.800 |

4 | 5 | 3.43 | 1.410 |

4 | 10 | 7.00 | 2.330 |

4 | 15 | 9.85 | 2.815 |

4 | 20 | 12.10 | 3.000 |

6 | 5 | 4.00 | 1.950 |

6 | 10 | 7.30 | 3.200 |

6 | 15 | 10.70 | 4.150 |

6 | 20 | 13.30 | 4.250 |

8 | 5 | 4.20 | 2.100 |

8 | 10 | 7.40 | 3.340 |

8 | 15 | 10 | 3.650 |

8 | 20 | 13.15 | 3.350 |

10 | 5 | 4 | 2.050 |

10 | 10 | 7.10 | 3.500 |

10 | 15 | 10.10 | 3.950 |

10 | 20 | 13.40 | 4.050 |

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**MDPI and ACS Style**

Demir, Z.; Özek, C.; Bal, M. An Experimental Investigation on Bushing Geometrical Properties and Density in Thermal Frictional Drilling. *Appl. Sci.* **2018**, *8*, 2658.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122658

**AMA Style**

Demir Z, Özek C, Bal M. An Experimental Investigation on Bushing Geometrical Properties and Density in Thermal Frictional Drilling. *Applied Sciences*. 2018; 8(12):2658.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122658

**Chicago/Turabian Style**

Demir, Zülküf, Cebeli Özek, and Muhammed Bal. 2018. "An Experimental Investigation on Bushing Geometrical Properties and Density in Thermal Frictional Drilling" *Applied Sciences* 8, no. 12: 2658.
https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122658