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Open AccessArticle

Cascaded Machine-Learning Technique for Debris Classification in Floor-Cleaning Robot Application

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Engineering Product Development Pillar, Singapore University of Technology and Design (SUTD), Singapore 487372, Singapore
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Department of Computer Science, Birla Institute of Technology and Science (BITS) Pilani, Pilani Campus, Vidyavihar, Rajasthan 333031, India
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Department of Electrical Engineering, UET, NWL Campus, Lahore 54890, Pakistan
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Optoelectronics Research Group, Faculty of Electrical and Electronics Engineering, Ton Duc Thang University, Ho Chi Minh City 70000, Vietnam
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2018, 8(12), 2649; https://doi.org/10.3390/app8122649
Received: 5 November 2018 / Revised: 4 December 2018 / Accepted: 12 December 2018 / Published: 17 December 2018
Debris detection and classification is an essential function for autonomous floor-cleaning robots. It enables floor-cleaning robots to identify and avoid hard-to-clean debris, specifically large liquid spillage debris. This paper proposes a debris-detection and classification scheme for an autonomous floor-cleaning robot using a deep Convolutional Neural Network (CNN) and Support Vector Machine (SVM) cascaded technique. The SSD (Single-Shot MultiBox Detector) MobileNet CNN architecture is used for classifying the solid and liquid spill debris on the floor through the captured image. Then, the SVM model is employed for binary classification of liquid spillage regions based on size, which helps floor-cleaning devices to identify the larger liquid spillage debris regions, considered as hard-to-clean debris in this work. The experimental results prove that the proposed technique can efficiently detect and classify the debris on the floor and achieves 95.5% percent classification accuracy. The cascaded approach takes approximately 71 milliseconds for the entire process of debris detection and classification, which implies that the proposed technique is suitable for deploying in real-time selective floor-cleaning applications. View Full-Text
Keywords: Convolutional Neural Network (CNN); Support Vector Machine (SVM); floor-cleaning robot; object detection; debris classification; SSD MobileNet Convolutional Neural Network (CNN); Support Vector Machine (SVM); floor-cleaning robot; object detection; debris classification; SSD MobileNet
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Ramalingam, B.; Lakshmanan, A.K.; Ilyas, M.; Le, A.V.; Elara, M.R. Cascaded Machine-Learning Technique for Debris Classification in Floor-Cleaning Robot Application. Appl. Sci. 2018, 8, 2649.

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