Accurate temperature and thermal dose prediction are crucial to high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) hyperthermia, which has been used successfully for the non-invasive treatment of solid tumors. For the conventional method of prediction, the tissue properties are usually set as constants. However, the temperature rise induced by HIFU irradiation in tissues will cause changes in the tissue properties that in turn affect the acoustic and temperature field. Herein, an acoustic–thermal coupling model is presented to predict the temperature and thermal damage zone in tissue in terms of the Westervelt equation and Pennes bioheat transfer equation, and the individual influence of each dynamic tissue property and the joint effect of all of the dynamic tissue properties are studied. The simulation results show that the dynamic acoustic absorption coefficient has the greatest influence on the temperature and thermal damage zone among all of the individual dynamic tissue properties. In addition, compared with the conventional method, the dynamic acoustic absorption coefficient leads to a higher focal temperature and a larger thermal damage zone; on the contrary, the dynamic blood perfusion leads to a lower focal temperature and a smaller thermal damage zone. Moreover, the conventional method underestimates the focal temperature and the thermal damage zone, compared with the simulation that was performed using all of the dynamic tissue properties. The results of this study will be helpful to guide the doctors to develop more accurate clinical protocols for HIFU treatment planning.
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