The effect of filling velocity on positive macrosegregation in large size steel ingots was studied. Macrosegregation and macro/microstructures were characterized on the hot-tops and a portion of the upper section of two ingots. The measurements revealed that segregation features in the two ingots varied as a function of the alloying elements, and that the severity of positive macrosegregation in the casting body was reduced when the filling rate was increased. It was also found that at the higher filling rate, grain morphologies in the first solidified zones of the ingot changed from columnar to equiaxe, and secondary dendrite arm spacing (SDAS) became slightly smaller in the intermediate and final solidified zones. The experimental findings were analyzed in the framework of diffusion and convection-controlled solidification, as well as liquid metal flow theories. The solute dependence of segregation features was related to the difference in the solid-liquid partition coefficient and diffusion capability of each element in the liquid iron. Calculation of Reynolds numbers (Re) during the filling process, for both ingots, showed that higher filling velocity caused more instable movement of the liquid metal in the initial solidification stage, resulting in the modification of grain morphology, as well as accelerated solidification rate.
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