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Open AccessFeature PaperReview

The Performance and Fouling Control of Submerged Hollow Fiber (HF) Systems: A Review

Singapore Membrane Technology Center, Nanyang Environment and Water Research Institute, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 639798, Singapore
Young Researchers and Elite Club, Central Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran 1469669191, Iran
School of Chemical and Biomedical Engineering, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore 637459, Singapore
UNESCO Centre for Membrane Science and Technology, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
School of Chemical Engineering, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, NSW 2052, Australia
Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, University of Colorado, Boulder, CO 80309-0424, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(8), 765;
Received: 27 June 2017 / Revised: 22 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 28 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Wastewater Treatment and Reuse Technologies)
The submerged membrane filtration concept is well-established for low-pressure microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) applications in the water industry, and has become a mainstream technology for surface-water treatment, pretreatment prior to reverse osmosis (RO), and membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Compared to submerged flat sheet (FS) membranes, submerged hollow fiber (HF) membranes are more common due to their advantages of higher packing density, the ability to induce movement by mechanisms such as bubbling, and the feasibility of backwashing. In view of the importance of submerged HF processes, this review aims to provide a comprehensive landscape of the current state-of-the-art systems, to serve as a guide for further improvements in submerged HF membranes and their applications. The topics covered include recent developments in submerged hollow fiber membrane systems, the challenges and developments in fouling-control methods, and treatment protocols for membrane permeability recovery. The highlighted research opportunities include optimizing the various means to manipulate the hydrodynamics for fouling mitigation, developing online monitoring devices, and extending the submerged HF concept beyond filtration. View Full-Text
Keywords: submerged hollow fiber membranes; water treatment; fouling mitigation; critical flux; module design submerged hollow fiber membranes; water treatment; fouling mitigation; critical flux; module design
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MDPI and ACS Style

Akhondi, E.; Zamani, F.; Tng, K.H.; Leslie, G.; Krantz, W.B.; Fane, A.G.; Chew, J.W. The Performance and Fouling Control of Submerged Hollow Fiber (HF) Systems: A Review. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 765.

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