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Open AccessArticle

Differentiating Authentic Adenophorae Radix from Its Adulterants in Commercially-Processed Samples Using Multiplexed ITS Sequence-Based SCAR Markers

1
K-herb Research Center, Korea Institute of Oriental Medicine, Daejeon 34054, Korea
2
Department of Agronomy, Yanbian University Agriculture College, Yanji 133002, China
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Chih-Ching Huang
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(7), 660; https://doi.org/10.3390/app7070660
Received: 10 April 2017 / Revised: 19 June 2017 / Accepted: 20 June 2017 / Published: 27 June 2017
Determining the precise botanical origin of a traditional herbal medicine is important for basic quality control. In both the Chinese and Korean herbal pharmacopoeia, authentic Adenophorae Radix is defined as the roots of Adenophora stricta and Adenophora triphylla. However, the roots of Codonopsis lanceolata, Codonopsis pilosula, and Glehnia littoralis are frequently distributed as Adenophorae Radix in Korean herbal markets. Unfortunately, correctly identifying dried roots is difficult using conventional methods because the roots of those species are morphologically similar. Therefore, we developed DNA-based markers for the identification of authentic Adenophorae Radix and its common adulterants in commercially-processed samples. To develop a reliable method to discriminate between Adenophorae Radix and its adulterants, we sequenced the nuclear ribosomal DNA internal transcribed spacers (nrDNA-ITS) and designed sequence-characterized amplified region (SCAR) primers specific to the authentic and adulterant species. Using these primers, we developed SCAR markers for each species and established a multiplex-PCR method that can authenticate the four herbal medicines in a single PCR reaction. Furthermore, we confirmed that commercially-processed herbal medicines, which often have degraded DNA, could be assessed with our method. Therefore, our method is a reliable genetic tool to protect against adulteration and to standardize the quality of Adenophorae Radix. View Full-Text
Keywords: Adenophorae Radix; internal transcribed spacer (ITS); sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR) marker; multiplex PCR; molecular identification Adenophorae Radix; internal transcribed spacer (ITS); sequence characterized amplification region (SCAR) marker; multiplex PCR; molecular identification
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Moon, B.C.; Kim, W.J.; Han, K.S.; Yang, S.; Kang, Y.; Park, I.; Piao, R. Differentiating Authentic Adenophorae Radix from Its Adulterants in Commercially-Processed Samples Using Multiplexed ITS Sequence-Based SCAR Markers. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 660.

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