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Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(11), 1153;

Effects of Viewing Displays from Different Distances on Human Visual System

Industrial Engineering Department, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
Raytheon Chair for Systems Engineering (RCSE), Advanced Manufacturing Institute, King Saud University, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 October 2017 / Revised: 1 November 2017 / Accepted: 6 November 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Socio-Cognitive and Affective Computing)
PDF [2112 KB, uploaded 10 November 2017]


The current stereoscopic 3D displays have several human-factor issues including visual-fatigue symptoms such as eyestrain, headache, fatigue, nausea, and malaise. The viewing time and viewing distance are factors that considerably affect the visual fatigue associated with 3D displays. Hence, this study analyzes the effects of display type (2D vs. 3D) and viewing distance on visual fatigue during a 60-min viewing session based on electroencephalogram (EEG) relative beta power, and alpha/beta power ratio. In this study, twenty male participants watched four videos. The EEGs were recorded at two occipital lobes (O1 and O2) of each participant in the pre-session (3 min), post-session (3 min), and during a 60-min viewing session. The results showed that the decrease in relative beta power of the EEG and the increase in the alpha/beta ratio from the start until the end of the viewing session were significantly higher when watching the 3D display. When the viewing distance was increased from 1.95 m to 3.90 m, the visual fatigue was decreased in the case of the 3D-display, whereas the fatigue was increased in the case of the 2D-display. Moreover, there was approximately the same level of visual fatigue when watching videos in 2D or 3D from a long viewing distance (3.90 m). View Full-Text
Keywords: 3D display; visual fatigue; electroencephalogram (EEG); causative factor 3D display; visual fatigue; electroencephalogram (EEG); causative factor

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Ramadan, M.Z.; Alhaag, M.H.; Abidi, M.H. Effects of Viewing Displays from Different Distances on Human Visual System. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1153.

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