Next Article in Journal
Deterministic and Robust Optimization Approach for Single Artillery Unit Fire Scheduling Problem
Previous Article in Journal
A Kriging Model Based Finite Element Model Updating Method for Damage Detection
Article Menu
Issue 10 (October) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessArticle

An Integrated Risk Index Model Based on Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic for Underground Risk Assessment

Department of Computer Engineering, Jeju National University, Jeju 63243, Korea
ETRI, 218 Gajenong-ro Yuseung-Gu, Daejeon 34129, Korea
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Appl. Sci. 2017, 7(10), 1037;
Received: 7 September 2017 / Revised: 2 October 2017 / Accepted: 7 October 2017 / Published: 11 October 2017
PDF [2773 KB, uploaded 13 October 2017]


Available space in congested cities is getting scarce due to growing urbanization in the recent past. The utilization of underground space is considered as a solution to the limited space in smart cities. The numbers of underground facilities are growing day by day in the developing world. Typical underground facilities include the transit subway, parking lots, electric lines, water supply and sewer lines. The likelihood of the occurrence of accidents due to underground facilities is a random phenomenon. To avoid any accidental loss, a risk assessment method is required to conduct the continuous risk assessment and report any abnormality before it happens. In this paper, we have proposed a hierarchical fuzzy inference based model for under-ground risk assessment. The proposed hierarchical fuzzy inference architecture reduces the total number of rules from the rule base. Rule reduction is important because the curse of dimensionality damages the transparency and interpretation as it is very tough to understand and justify hundreds or thousands of fuzzy rules. The computation time also increases as rules increase. The proposed model takes 175 rules having eight input parameters to compute the risk index, and the conventional fuzzy logic requires 390,625 rules, having the same number of input parameters to compute risk index. Hence, the proposed model significantly reduces the curse of dimensionality. Rule design for fuzzy logic is also a tedious task. In this paper, we have also introduced new rule schemes, namely maximum rule-based and average rule-based; both schemes can be used interchangeably according to the logic needed for rule design. The experimental results show that the proposed method is a virtuous choice for risk index calculation where the numbers of variables are greater. View Full-Text
Keywords: fuzzy logic; risk index; sewerage supply; underground structure; water supply fuzzy logic; risk index; sewerage supply; underground structure; water supply

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited (CC BY 4.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Fayaz, M.; Ullah, I.; Park, D.-H.; Kim, K.; Kim, D. An Integrated Risk Index Model Based on Hierarchical Fuzzy Logic for Underground Risk Assessment. Appl. Sci. 2017, 7, 1037.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Appl. Sci. EISSN 2076-3417 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top