Hypothesis and Planning of the Study
2. Headphones Measurements and Virtual Headphone Simulation
2.1. Headphone Selection
- REF, Reference, Sennheiser HD800 headphone (open and circumaural)
- HQop, High Quality open headphone (circumaural)
- MQcl, Medium Quality closed headphone (circumaural)
- BDso, Big Diaphragm semi-open headphone (circumaural)
- LCmul, Low Cost multimedia headphone (supra-aural)
- AirL, Airline headphone (supra-concha)
- Woh, Wireless open headphone (circumaural)
- LCmul2, Low Cost multimedia headphone 2 (supra-aural)
2.2. Frequency Responses Measures
2.3. Headphones Frequency Response Simulation
2.4. Non-Linear Distortion Simulations
2.5. Binaural Room Impulse Responses Measurements
3. Test 1. Sensitivity Disparity between Left-Right Transducers
3.1. Test Description
4. Test 2. Frequency Response about Quality and Spatial Impressions
4.1. Test Description
5. Test 3. Non-Linear Distortion
5.1. Test Description
6. Test 4. Frequency Response about Azimuth Localization
6.1. Test Description
- The sensitivity disparities between left and right transducers affect the localization of sound sources, starting from level differences of 1 dB.
- The quality and uniformity of the frequency response have an important influence in the spatial impression.
- Additionally, the spatial impression has a high correlation with the subjective perceived quality.
- The binaural recordings do not obtain significant better results for the parameter spatial impression compared to two-channel stereo mixes.
- The distortion introduced by consumer level low quality headphones does not affect the perception of the spatial sound image.
- It has been ratified that much front-back confusion is produced, both for high and low quality headphones.
- We found that irregularities of the frequency response in the band of 100 to 1600 Hz seem to especially affect the front-back discrimination.
- We also found that a poor response in the band of 4 to 7 kHz degrades the accuracy in lateral position localization.
Conflicts of Interest
Analysis of Variance
Binaural Room Impulse Responses
Sound Pressure Level dB
Fast Fourier Transform
Graphical User Interface
Head and Torso Simulator
Interaural Level Difference
Interaural Time Difference
International Telecommunication Union, recommendation by Radiocommunication sector
Low Pass Filter
Matrix Laboratory, MathWorks software
MUltiple Stimuli with Hidden Reference and Anchor
Original film Soundtrack
Vector Base Amplitude Panning
Wave Field Synthesis
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|Bettina Flater||Haugebonden||Women en Mi||female voice and guitar|
|Paco de Lucía||Zambra Gitana||Canción Andaluza||male voice and guitar|
|Jerry Glodsmith||Night Boarders||OST The Mummy||high dynamic orchestral|
|The Chad Fisher Group||Basin Street Blues||live||jazz (binaural)|
|Smashing Pumpkins||audience sound||live||audience and drums (binaural)|
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