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Erratum published on 17 March 2016, see Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(3), 85.

Open AccessReview
Appl. Sci. 2016, 6(2), 57;

A Review of Time-Scale Modification of Music Signals

International Audio Laboratories Erlangen, 91058 Erlangen, Germany
This paper is an extended version of our paper published in the Proceedings of the International Conference on Digital Audio Effects (DAFx), Erlangen, Germany, 1–5 September 2014.
These authors contributed equally to this work.
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Vesa Valimaki
Received: 22 December 2015 / Revised: 22 January 2016 / Accepted: 25 January 2016 / Published: 18 February 2016
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Audio Signal Processing)
Full-Text   |   PDF [1618 KB, uploaded 17 March 2016]   |  


Time-scale modification (TSM) is the task of speeding up or slowing down an audio signal’s playback speed without changing its pitch. In digital music production, TSM has become an indispensable tool, which is nowadays integrated in a wide range of music production software. Music signals are diverse—they comprise harmonic, percussive, and transient components, among others. Because of this wide range of acoustic and musical characteristics, there is no single TSM method that can cope with all kinds of audio signals equally well. Our main objective is to foster a better understanding of the capabilities and limitations of TSM procedures. To this end, we review fundamental TSM methods, discuss typical challenges, and indicate potential solutions that combine different strategies. In particular, we discuss a fusion approach that involves recent techniques for harmonic-percussive separation along with time-domain and frequency-domain TSM procedures. View Full-Text
Keywords: digital signal processing; overlap-add; WSOLA; phase vocoder; harmonic-percussive separation; transient preservation; pitch-shifting; music synchronization digital signal processing; overlap-add; WSOLA; phase vocoder; harmonic-percussive separation; transient preservation; pitch-shifting; music synchronization

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Driedger, J.; Müller, M. A Review of Time-Scale Modification of Music Signals. Appl. Sci. 2016, 6, 57.

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