The goal of this presented study was to determine the optimum parameters of secondary optical elements (SOEs) for concentrated photovoltaic (CPV) units with flat Fresnel lenses. Three types of SOEs are under consideration in the design process, including kaleidoscope with equal optical path design (KOD), kaleidoscope with flat top surface (KFTS), and open-truncated tetrahedral pyramid with specular walls (SP). The function of using a SOE with a Fresnel lens in a CPV unit is to achieve high optical efficiency, low sensitivity to the sun tracking error, and improved uniformity of irradiance distribution on the solar cell. Ray tracing technique was developed to simulate the optical characteristics of the CPV unit with various design parameters of each type of SOE. Finally, an optimum KOD-type SOE was determined by parametric design process. The resulting optical performance of the CPV unit with the optimum SOE was evaluated in both single-wavelength and broadband simulation of solar spectrum.
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